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Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Deduction & Induction

Differences between inductive and deductive researchIn logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is. These two methods of reasoning have a very different "feel" to them when you're conducting research. Inductive reasoning, by. Market research is grounded in the branch of philosophy known as logic. Two logical reasoning approaches are basic to research design. These approaches are known as deduction and induction. Deductive reasoning is a top-down approach that works from the general to the specific. In empirical research, that means that a market researcher begins a study by considering theories that have been developed in conjunction with a topic of interest. This approach lets a market researcher think about research that has been already been conducted and develop an idea about extending or adding to that theoretical foundation. This new hypothesis will be tested by the market researcher in the process of conducting a new study. Specific data that has been collected and analyzed in the new study will form the basis of the Inductive reasoning is a bottom-up approach that moves from the specific to the general. Next


Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive

Differences between inductive and deductive researchAbstract This discussion paper compares and contrasts inductive and deductive research approaches as described by Trochim 2006 and Plano Clark andIt continues with a discussion of the elements that showcase the differences and similarities between the two major research approaches. While methods of data collection and data analysis represent the core of research methods, you have to address a range of additional elements within the scope of your research. The most important elements of research methodology expected to be covered in business dissertation at Bachelor’s, Master’s and Ph D levels include research philosophy, types of reseaerch, research approach, methods of data collection, sampling and ethical considerations. Research philosophy is associated with clarification of assumption about the nature and the source of knowledge. All studies are based on some kind of assumptions about the world and the ways of understanding the world. There is no consensus among philosophers about the most appropriate ways of understanding the world; therefore, you are expected to clarify the philosophy you have chosen to understand your research problem. In simple words, research phislophy refers to your beliefe about how data should be collected, analysed and used. Accordingly, clarification of reseaerch philosophy is a starting point for the choice of research methods. Positivism and phenomenology are the two main contrasting research philosophies related to business studies. Positivism is an objective approach which relies on facts and quantitative data. Next


What is the difference between inductive and deductive arguments.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchAn argument is a sequence of statements establishing the truth of a proposition. In deductive reasoning, you start from the facts, and proceed using only formal rules of logic -- this guarantees that every statement you make in your argument is. Research philosophy is a vast topic and here we will not be discussing this topic in great details. In business and economics dissertations at Bachelor’s level, you are not expected to discuss research philosophy in a great level of depth, and about one page in methodology chapter devoted to research philosophy usually suffices. For a business dissertation at Master’s level you may need to provide more discussion of the philosophy of your study, but even there, about two pages of discussions has to be accepted as sufficient by your supervisor. Discussion of research philosophy in your dissertation should include the following: Research philosophy deals with the source, nature and development of knowledge[1]. In simple terms, a research philosophy is belief about the ways in which data about a phenomenon should be collected, analysed and used. Although the idea of knowledge creation may appear to be profound, you are engaged in knowledge creation as part of completing your dissertation. You will collect secondary and primary data and engage in data analysis to answer the research question and this answer marks the creation of new knowledge. In essence, addressing research philosophy in your dissertation involves being aware and formulating your beliefs and assumptions. Next


INDUCTIVE & DEDUCTIVE Inductive Research Approach

Differences between inductive and deductive researchInductive & deductive research approach. Meritorious main division between forms of reasoning that is made in philosophy is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Inductive and deductive reasoning are both forms of reasoning that involve premises and conclusions. While deductive reasoning allows reaching conclusions that are 100 percent true, inductive reasoning only allows for reaching strong conclusions at best, and they are not necessarily true. There are substantial differences between two types of reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or simply deduction, is the type of reasoning that takes a general statement and explores the possibilities to reach a certain logical conclusion. If something is true for the class of entities, this is also true for each entity that belongs to this class. Because of this, deductive reasoning is also known as “top-bottom” reasoning. A popular form of deduction is the syllogism, in which two statements reach a logical conclusion. An example of a syllogism: In inductive reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing specific data. In inductive reasoning, the truth is near, but it is still elusive. Based on a certain amount of observations, it is possible to make a generalization and come up with a theory. Scientists use inductive reasoning to come up with theories that require further application of deductive reasoning to prove their viability. An example of an inductive argument that can be proved wrong: What is the difference between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning? Next


Difference between inductive & deductive? - ResearchGate

Differences between inductive and deductive researchGet expert answers to your questions in Deduction, Qualitative Research and Induction and more on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. If any or all of these questions describe you, then take heart, beloved, for you are about to embark on a journey called "Inductive Bible Study" (IBS), one that has the potential to radically transform your life as you study God's Word in a way you heretofore never thought possible. Inductive Bible Study will expose you to an approach that can be applied to any Scripture, any time, any place, by any one. All that is required is the Holy Book, the Holy Spirit and a humble, teachable heart. As you begin this journey, remember that the Bible will be your primary resource "for no (spoken) word from God (is) void of power (a more literal rendering of Luke ASV then other translations) and "His divine power has granted to us everything pertaining to life and godliness (read that phrase again - do you believe this is true? ), through the true knowledge of Him (found in His Word) Who called us by His own glory and excellence. Warfield was absolutely correct when he said "The Bible is the Word of God in such a way that when the Bible speaks, God speaks." Allow the Author to speak directly, personally and powerfully to your mind but also to your heart. For by these (His "glory and excellence") He has granted to us His precious and magnificent promises, in order that by them (we) might become partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world by lust." (2Pe 1:3,4-notes) Beloved, if you are not convinced on the sufficiency and power of the Bible as your guidebook for abundant, supernatural life, you might consider performing a simple study on the inherent Power of God's Word. Remember that the Bible is the only book whose Author is always present when it is read. You must understand and believe that the Word of God not only is sufficient for every need but that it is a "love letter" from God, because it is! Knowing the Incarnate Word is the key to understanding the written Word And in growing in grace and knowledge of the Incarnate Word Beloved, many saints are sitting under the Word today in Bible believing churches, but they are not in the Word for themselves. "God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life." (John ) Your objective is to learn to read the Bible as if God were personally speaking to you. As a corollary, many saints read the Word but fail to study the Word, a malady about which Oscar Feucht once quipped "The difference between reading and study is like the difference between drifting in a boat and rowing toward a destination." The psalmist writes that the blessed man or woman who flourishes like a tree by water is the one who delights not under but "in the law of the LORD, and in His law meditates (see Primer On Biblical Meditation) day and night." (Ps 1:2, 3 -note). Next


Inductive and Deductive Method Characteristics and

Differences between inductive and deductive researchDifferences between both methods. Inductive and deductive approaches to research 2013 Recovered from Inductive Approach Inductive Reasoning Retrieved from .action_button.action_button:active.action_button:hover.action_button:focus.action_button:hover.action_button:focus .count.action_button:hover .count.action_button:focus .count:before.action_button:hover .count:before.submit_button.submit_button:active.submit_button:hover.submit_button:not(.fake_disabled):hover.submit_button:not(.fake_disabled):focus._type_serif_title_large.js-wf-loaded ._type_serif_title_large.amp-page ._type_serif_title_large@media only screen and (min-device-width:320px) and (max-device-width:360px).u-margin-left--sm.u-flex.u-flex-auto.u-flex-none.bullet. Content Wrapper:after.hidden.normal.grid_page.grid_page:before,.grid_page:after.grid_page:after.grid_page h3.grid_page h3 a.grid_page h3 a:hover.grid_page h3 a.action_button.grid_page h3 a.action_button:active.grid_page h3 a.action_button:hover.grid_page h3 a.action_button:not(.fake_disabled):hover.grid_page h3 a.action_button:not(.fake_disabled):focus.grid_pagediv. Error Banner.fade_out.modal_overlay.modal_overlay .modal_wrapper.modal_overlay .modal_wrapper.normal@media(max-width:630px)@media(max-width:630px).modal_overlay .modal_fixed_close.modal_overlay .modal_fixed_close:before.modal_overlay .modal_fixed_close:before.modal_overlay .modal_fixed_close:before.modal_overlay .modal_fixed_close:hover:before. Selector .selector_input_interaction .selector_input. Selector .selector_input_interaction .selector_spinner. Selector .selector_results_container.form_buttons.form_buttons a.form_buttons input[type='submit'].form_buttons .submit_button.form_buttons .submit_button.form_buttons .action_button.hover_menu.hover_menu:before,.hover_menu:after.hover_menu.show_nub:before.hover_menu.show_nub:after.hover_menu.show_nub.white_bg:after.hover_menu .hover_menu_contents.hover_menu.white_bg .hover_menu_contents. Next


What's the difference between inductive and deductive research in.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchFeb 18, 2015. As far as my knowledge goes, I don't think these two types of reasoning in cogsci are any different to other forms of inductive or deductive reasoning one is a bottom-up approach and the other a top-down process. Deductive reasoning starts at the general and moves towards the specific, going from theory. I’ve written A LOT about the advantages of inductive over deductive learning, and how I also use both in my classroom (You can see many posts here). The British Council just shared a short post that Paul Kaye wrote six years ago that does a great job explaining the difference between inductive and deductive, and he provides a number of practical examples from the language-learning classroom. Next


Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research - Eric

Differences between inductive and deductive researchInductive and Deductive Research Approaches. 5 and quantitative with exploratory and confirmatory to more clearly reflect the relationship between the two methodologies. The methods may be different but the goals remain the same and Onwuegbuzie and Leech 2005 worry that the separation of the two paradigms can. While conducting a research, there are broadly two methods of reasoning that are adopted. These are known as inductive and deductive reasoning approaches. The two approaches are diametrically opposite to each other and the selection of the reasoning approach depends upon the design of the research as well as requirements of the researcher. This article will briefly look at the two reasoning approaches and try to differentiate between them. Deductive reasoning This is an approach that works from general premises to a more specific conclusion. Next


What's the Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Reasoning?

Differences between inductive and deductive researchJul 13, 2017. Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning are two different approaches to conducting scientific research. With deductive reasoning, a researcher tests a theory by collecting and examining empirical evidence to see if it is true. With inductive reasoning, a researcher first gathers and analyzes data, then. How does a market researcher know when to use a qualitative approach and when to use a quantitative approach to a study? A choice between research methods rests fundamentally on a set of decisions about the questions a researcher wants to answer and the practicality of gathering the kind of data that will answer those questions. differences between the two types of methods, there is one very important distinction. Quantitative research is deductive and hinges on the presence of a hypothesis, which is identified before research begins. Qualitative research is inductive and does not require a hypothesis in order to start the research process. Let's take a closer look at this important difference, and dig a bit deeper into three key terms that help define quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research looks at the general case and moves toward the specific. Next


What's the difference between 'inductive', 'deductive' and.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchBriefly, deductive reasoning is the sort that, if it is successful, then if the premises are all true, then the conclusion must be true. In other words, a good deductive argument is deductively valid, which means that the premises “force” the conc. The difference between inductive and deductive research stems from their approach and focus. In all disciplines, research plays a vital role, as it allows various academics to expand their theoretical knowledge of the discipline and also to verify the existing theories. Inductive and deductive approaches to research or else inductive and deductive research can be understood as a type of categorization. Inductive research mainly focuses on building new theories, whereas deductive research focuses on verifying theories. This is the main difference between the two types of research. Through this article let us examine the differences between the two types of research, inductive and deductive research. The inductive research aims at creating new knowledge. This usually begins with an area of interest for the researcher. The researcher creates a research problem from this selected field and develops research questions. Next


Inductive and deductive approaches to research Dr Deborah Gabriel

Differences between inductive and deductive researchMar 17, 2013. The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. As far as my knowledge goes, I don't think these two types of reasoning in cogsci are any different to other forms of inductive or deductive reasoning: one is a bottom-up approach and the other a top-down process. Deductive reasoning starts at the general and moves towards the specific, going from theory to hypothesis, observation to a confirmation. This is good science: a priori we form specific predictions and test them in very restrictive lab settings. An example could be examining modular and embodied approaches to cognition, forming a specific hypothesis about a specific circumstance, and then testing it. Inductive reasoning on the other hand works visa-versa, going from an observation to a pattern, a tentative hypothesis to a theory. This is not always a good way to work, especially for quantitative methods, as it relies upon post hoc interpretations of observed effects. Work of this form could be interested in understanding stress in the workplace, may interview people about it and then finally form a conclusion based upon these conversations. Next


Difference between inductive and deductive

Differences between inductive and deductive researchDifferences between Inductive difference between inductive and deductive research and Deduct. Difference between Sign and Symbol • Both signs and symbols are graphical presentations but people often difference between inductive and deductive research use them. I assume by “report” you mean something you would write on some topic or issue. You might propose a rule: the box contains only red items. Deduction leads to absolutely valid conclusions if the original rules are true. Here’s the difference between deduction and induction. For example, if I said that if it rains the road gets wet and then tell you it’s raining, then you deduce that the road is getting wet. Most logic games, such as Clue, Battleships, and Master Mind involve deductive reasoning. Suppose you close your eyes, reach into a box and put out a red sock. Induction allows us to generalize hypothetical rules when we see patterns. You see the clues and figure out what has to be the answer. Of course, it only takes one non-red object in the box to disprove the rule. Laws in science are examples of inductive reasoning. Isaac Newtons sees that objects tend to keep moving if nothing influences them, and proposes a law (Newton’s first law) that all objects will move at uniform speed in a straight line in the absence of an external force. He didn’t see a single example of an object that was absolutely free of external forces, so he had to imagine the ideal case. Next


Difference Between Inductive and Deductive

Differences between inductive and deductive researchMay 11, 2011. Inductive vs Deductive While conducting a research, there are broadly two methods of reasoning that are adopted. These are known as inductive and deductive. Researchers usually use one of the two widely known research approaches i.e. Both of the approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and both impact on many aspects of a research. The aim of this article is to explore the differences between deductive and inductive approaches to research. According to Gratton and Jones (2009) deductive approach involves testing of a pre-determined theory, explanation or hypothesis. This approach helps researchers ascertain a hypothesis by using existing theories. Existing information is dissected to accept or reject the hypothesis in order to achieve the research aims (Gill and Johnson, 2010). It is about moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Advantages and disadvantages of deductive approach Deductive research is a focused method of testing hypotheses. According to Gratton and Jones (2009) inductive approach generates the explanation from the data collected. Advantages and disadvantages of inductive approach Inductive approach is flexible as the researcher does not have to follow any pre-determined information. Next


Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Research Inductive vs.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchMay 12, 2015. The difference between inductive and deductive research stems from their approach and focus. In all disciplines, research plays a vital role, as it allows various academics to expand their theoretical knowledge of the discipline and also to verify the existing theories. Inductive and deductive approaches to. Deductive research aims to test an existing theory while inductive research aims to generate new theories from observed data. Deductive research works from the more general to the more specific, and inductive research works from more specific observations to more general theories. Continue Reading Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach. It typically begins with selecting a pre-existing theory about a certain topic of interest. The theory is then narrowed down into more specific hypotheses that can be tested. Next, observations are collected to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads to the ability to test the hypotheses with specific data and confirm or deny the original theory. Inductive reasoning works in the other direction, and it relies heavily on a bottom-up approach. Next


Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Research - YouTube

Differences between inductive and deductive researchFeb 2, 2016. Inductive and deductive approaches to research. Dr deborah gabriel. The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is. The difference between inductive and deductive research stems from their approach and focus. In all disciplines, research plays a vital role, as it allows various academics to expand their theoretical knowledge of the discipline and also to verify the existing theories. Inductive and deductive approaches to research or else inductive and deductive research can be understood as a type of categorization. Inductive research mainly focuses on building new theories, whereas deductive research focuses on verifying theories. This is the main difference between the two types of research. Through this article let us examine the differences between the two types of research, inductive and deductive research. Next


Difference between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchKey Difference Inductive reasoning, also known as 'bottom-up' logic is the kind of reasoning that focuses on creating generalized statements from specific examples. This type of reasoning focuses on specific examples that may prove something true, which are then transferred onto generalized concepts. Deductive. In our daily lives, we make decisions based on our reasoning but this is a process that varies depending on the situation obtaining on the ground. Reasoning mainly pertains to the aspect of using different thoughts to create a valid argument that can be used to make a decision. As such, it can be noted that there are mainly two types of reasoning called deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Both are based on the use of logic and more often, people tend to confuse these two and use them interchangeably but as a matter of fact, these concepts are different. As such, the meaning of each form of reasoning is explained below and the differences between them are clearly outlined. Deductive reasoning uses true premises as well as true conclusions that are also valid as well. General premises or principles are often used in deduction reasoning and these lead to the creation of valid and true conclusion. As a general principle, it is believed that all human beings have brains that help them to reason in a logical manner. Next


Difference between inductive and deductive research

Differences between inductive and deductive researchThere has probably been more energy expended on debating the differences between and difference between inductive and deductive research methods relative advantages of Praxis sample essays qualitative and. As far as my knowledge goes, I don't think these two types of reasoning in cogsci are any different to other forms of inductive or deductive reasoning: one is a bottom-up approach and the other a top-down process. Deductive reasoning starts at the general and moves towards the specific, going from theory to hypothesis, observation to a confirmation. This is good science: a priori we form specific predictions and test them in very restrictive lab settings. An example could be examining modular and embodied approaches to cognition, forming a specific hypothesis about a specific circumstance, and then testing it. Inductive reasoning on the other hand works visa-versa, going from an observation to a pattern, a tentative hypothesis to a theory. Next


Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning - Live Science

Differences between inductive and deductive researchJul 24, 2017. "In science, there is a constant interplay between inductive inference based on observations and deductive inference based on theory, until we get closer and closer to the 'truth,' which we can only approach but not ascertain with complete certainty." An example of inductive logic is, "The coin I pulled. By Harvey Bluedorn The labels inductive and deductive may be applied to several things, including methods of reasoning and methods of studying. A deductive approach moves from the rule to the example, and an inductive approach moves from the example to the rule. Though we may know that Socrates is mortal, nevertheless that does not logically flow from the premises of this argument. I will first discuss deductive and inductive methods of reasoning (I have discussed these in greater detail elsewhere), then I will discuss deductive and inductive methods for studying. If the premises are true, and the form is correct or valid, then the conclusion is necessarily true. If we only know that some men are mortal, then Socrates might be among some men who are not mortal. The inductive method reasons in the opposite direction of the deductive method. The conclusion (really, a generalization) may possibly be true there is no observation which contradicts the conclusion but it is not necessarily true there are still more observations which could be made. The deductive method reasons from certain premises to a necessary conclusion. However, if the form is invalid, then the conclusion is not necessarily true. It begins with specific observations and reasons to a generalization about the observations. If, indeed, I had examined all dogs (which, of course, nobody could possibly do), and all dogs examined had fleas, then I could conclude that all dogs do indeed have fleas. It is often described as reasoning from the general to the specific. It is often described as reasoning from the particulars to the general. Based on my sample of dogs, it appears that all dogs have fleas. But the first dog I found which did not have fleas would contradict and therefore disprove my conclusion. So all that I actually know is that some dogs have fleas. The deductive method of reasoning moves toward necessary conclusions derived from correct connections between premises premises which are all either given or assumed to be true. Next


What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchThe difference is one of necessitation. In deductive reasoning, the fact that the premises are true, necessitates or forces the conclusion to be true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be false. Or, put differently, you cannot construct a counterexample to the reasoning. But in inductive reasoning, there is no such necessitation. The order of the report sections will depend on whether you are required to write an inductive or deductive report. An inductive report involves moving from the specific issues, as outlined in the discussion, to the more general, summarised information, as displayed in the conclusions and recommendations: Such reports are ideal for an audience who has the time to read the report from cover to cover, and also in instances where the findings may be somewhat controversial, hence, the need to demonstrate your reasoning and evidence, as laid out in the discussion, for the recommendations decided upon. In contrast, in a deductive report you move from the general to the specific: This type of order is effective when faced with an audience who does not have time to read the whole document, but can access the conclusions and recommendations. Consequently, such an order is also appropriate for reports which are not contentious or unexpected in their decision outcomes and recommendations. Next


Deductive vs Inductive Reasoning - An Overview - ThoughtCo

Differences between inductive and deductive researchJul 13, 2017. What's the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Get the facts on how they differ and why the differences matter. Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning are two of the three main types of reasoning. Deductive Reasoning is the reasoning from the general to the particular. An example is: All metals expand when heated A is a metal Therefore A expands when heated The value of this information is more certain,. However, this information is also a lot vaguer and less informative then Induction. Inductive reasoning is the complete opposite of Deductive reasoning. It is the reasoning from the particular to the general. An example is: Metal A expands when heated, as does metal B and CTherefore, all metals expand when heated. The value of this information is a lot more informative. Some people may argue, however, that in practice deduction is no more certain than induction. Next


Difference between Deductive Reasoning and Inductive Reasoning.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchThe main difference between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning is that the later is opposite to the former. In other words, inductive reasoning is primarily concerned with making generalizations that are broad and these are based on specific observations. Data is availed first where observations are made and. Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning or abductive reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying strong evidence for the truth of the conclusion. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument may be probable, based upon the evidence given. The philosophical definition of inductive reasoning is more nuanced than simple progression from particular/individual instances to broader generalizations. Rather, the premises of an inductive logical argument indicate some degree of support (inductive probability) for the conclusion but do not entail it; that is, they suggest truth but do not ensure it. In this manner, there is the possibility of moving from general statements to individual instances (for example, statistical syllogisms, discussed below). It only deals in degrees to which, given the premises, the conclusion is credible according to some theory of evidence. Examples include a many-valued logic, Dempster–Shafer theory, or probability theory with rules for inference such as Bayes' rule. Unlike deductive reasoning, it does not rely on universals holding over a closed domain of discourse to draw conclusions, so it can be applicable even in cases of epistemic uncertainty (technical issues with this may arise however; for example, the second axiom of probability is a closed-world assumption). This argument could have been made every time a new biological life form was found, and would have been correct every time; however, it is still possible that in the future a biological life form not requiring liquid water could be discovered. Next


Inductive & deductive reasoning video Khan Academy

Differences between inductive and deductive researchSal discusses the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning by considering a word problem. The difference between inductive and deductive reasoning how are issues of validity and truth distinguished - essay example. Deductive and inductive arguments a because the difference between inductive and deductive arguments involves the strength of evidence which the author. Compare and contrast the inductive and deductive research paradigm/approaches the most significant difference between these. Inductive vs deductive while conducting a research, there are broadly two methods of reasoning that are adopted these are known as inductive and deductive. Check out our top free essays on deductive arguments to help you write your own essay difference between inductive and deductive arguments. What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning reasoning reasoning is a method of coming to conclusions by the use of logical argument. What is the difference between deductive and inductive the fundamental difference between induction and deduction lies on the nature essays, letters. Read inductive and deductive reasoning free essay and over 88,000 other research documents inductive and deductive reasoning • a brief description of one failure. Next


Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning with.

Differences between inductive and deductive researchJan 3, 2017. Eight important differences between inductive and deductive reasoning are discussed in the article. Inductive reasoning considers events for making the generalization. In contrast, deductive reasoning takes general statements as a base to arrive at a particular conclusion. Many clinically relevant forms of acute injury, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and myocardial infarction, have resisted treatments to prevent cell death following injury. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The clinical failures can be linked to the currently used inductive models based on biological specifics of the injury system. Here we contrast the application of inductive and deductive models of acute cell injury. Using brain ischemia as a case study, we discuss limitations in inductive inferences, including the inability to unambiguously assign cell death causality and the lack of a systematic quantitative framework. These limitations follow from an overemphasis on qualitative molecular pathways specific to the injured system. Our recently developed nonlinear dynamical theory of cell injury provides a generic, systematic approach to cell injury in which attractor states and system parameters are used to quantitatively characterize acute injury systems. The theoretical, empirical, and therapeutic implications of shifting to a deductive framework are discussed. Next