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The word frequency effect for recognition. - Semantic Scholar

Attention hypothesisThere is a considerable amount of disconfirming evidence. A traditional way to operationalize amount of attention during study is via the amount of self-paced study time that the learner allocates to each item e.g. Shaughnessy. Zimmerman, & Underwood, 1972. The elevated-attention hypothesis predicts that LF words will. Current concepts of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) emphasize the role of higher-order cognitive functions and reinforcement processes attributed to structural and biochemical anomalies in cortical and limbic neural networks innervated by the monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. However, these explanations do not account for the ubiquitous findings in ADHD of intra-individual performance variability, particularly on tasks that require continual responses to rapid, externally-paced stimuli. Nor do they consider attention as a temporal process dependent upon a continuous energy supply for efficient and consistent function. A consideration of this feature of intra-individual response variability, which is not unique to ADHD but is also found in other disorders, leads to a new perspective on the causes and potential remedies of specific aspects of ADHD. We propose that in ADHD, astrocyte function is insufficient, particularly in terms of its formation and supply of lactate. This insufficiency has implications both for performance and development: H1) In rapidly firing neurons there is deficient ATP production, slow restoration of ionic gradients across neuronal membranes and delayed neuronal firing; H2) In oligodendrocytes insufficient lactate supply impairs fatty acid synthesis and myelination of axons during development. These effects occur over vastly different time scales: those due to deficient ATP (H1) occur over milliseconds, whereas those due to deficient myelination (H2) occur over months and years. Collectively the neural outcomes of impaired astrocytic release of lactate manifest behaviourally as inefficient and inconsistent performance (variable response times across the lifespan, especially during activities that require sustained speeded responses and complex information processing). Next


Attention hypothesisA hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Learn more about the elements of a good hypothesis. English teachers looking at critical literacy in Queensland can require their students to explore stereotyping in Australian media. What better place to start than television advertisements? There are, at last count, 480 Australian advertisements reviewed on this site, available through the Australia filter. Each of the ads listed here is written up, with a You Tube link, and in many cases has details about where to download the video. Click on the links provided (dotted red line indicates a hyperlink). Men and beer Carlton MID Bloke Bots, Hahn Premium Light Gondola, Carlton Midstrength Sheds, Carlton Draught Big Ad, Castlemaine XXXX, Carlton Draught Canoe, Tooheys Tall Men. Men and cars Ford Courier Barbecue, Honda CRV Dress For It, Ford Ranger Legendary Tough. Women as sex objects Lipton Ice Tea Beach, Hahn Premium Light Gondola/, Lynx Jet, Natures Organic, Drumstick Summer Ritual at the pool, Hahn Super Dry Love Heart, Bundaberg Rum Bundy Bear, Lynx Jet Award, Antz Pantz Sic Em Rex. Next


Limited Attention and the Allocation of Effort in Securities Trading

Attention hypothesisLiquidity for a given stock to be negatively related to the attention requirements of other stocks in his portfolio, all else constant. We refer to this as the Limited Attention Hypothesis. The Limited Attention Hypothesis is based on the assumption that individual specialists face time and processing constraints that limit their ability. By Bernard Comrie No one would disagree with the claim that language and thought interact in many significant ways. There is great disagreement, however, about the proposition that each specific language has its own influence on the thought and action of its speakers. On the one hand, anyone who has learned more than one language is struck by the many ways in which languages differ from one another. But on the other hand, we expect human beings everywhere to have similar ways of experiencing the world. Comparisons of different languages can lead one to pay attention to 'universals'—the ways in which all languages are similar, and to 'particulars' —the ways in which each individual language, or type of language, is special, even unique. Linguists and other social scientists interested in universals have formulated theories to describe and explain human language and human language behavior in general terms as species-specific capacities of human beings. However, the idea that different languages may influence thinking in different ways has been present in many cultures and has given rise to many philosophical treatises. Because it is so difficult to pin down effects of a particular language on a particular thought pattern, this issue remains unresolved. Next


Top-down and bottom-up attention to memory A hypothesis AtoM.

Attention hypothesisRecent neuroimaging studies have implicated the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory retrieval, but there is uncertainty about its specific role. Research in the attentional domain has shown that superior parietal lobe SPL regions along the intraparietal sulcus are implicated in the voluntary orienting of attention to. Suppose that the police of Largeville, a town with a million inhabitants, are investigating a murder in which there are few or no clues—the victim was stabbed to death in an alley, and there are no fingerprints and no witnesses. But if the detective does not have for promoting Mortimer to the police’s special attention—if the name is pulled entirely out of a hat—then Mortimer’s rights are being violated. no particular evidence singling out any of the million people in this city… (Do let me know if it already has an official name—I can’t recall seeing it described.)Now the detective may perhaps have some form of rational evidence that is not legal evidence admissible in court—hearsay from an informant, for example. And this is true even if the detective is not claiming that Mortimer “did” do it, but only asking the police to spend time pondering that Mortimer have done it—unjustifiably promoting that particular hypothesis to attention. It’s human nature to look for confirmation rather than disconfirmation. Suppose that three detectives each suggest their hated enemies, as names to be considered; and Mortimer is brown-haired, Frederick is black-haired, and Helen is blonde. “We previously had no evidence to distinguish among the possibilities, but we know that Mortimer did it! Then a witness is found who says that the person leaving the scene was brown-haired. ”This is related to the principle I’ve started calling “locating the hypothesis,” which is that if you have a billion boxes only one of which contains a diamond (the truth), and your detectors only provide 1 bit of evidence apiece, then it takes much more evidence to promote the truth to your particular attention—to narrow it down to ten good possibilities, each deserving of our individual attention—than it does to figure out of those ten possibilities is true. It takes 27 bits to narrow it down to ten, and just another 4 bits will give us better than even odds of having the right answer. Thus the detective, in calling Mortimer to the particular attention of the police, for no reason out of a million other people, is skipping over then the detective is harassing and persecuting poor Mortimer. Next


On the division of attention A disproof of the single channel hypothesis

Attention hypothesisIn dichotic listening, subjects are apparently unable to attend simultaneously to two concurrent, auditory speech messages. However, in two experiments reported here, it is shown that people can attend to and repeat back continuous speech at the same time as taking in complex, unrelated visual scenes, or even while. Attention economics is an approach to the management of information that treats human attention as a scarce commodity, and applies economic theory to solve various information management problems. Put simply by Matthew Crawford, "Attention is a resource—a person has only so much of it." Attention is focused mental engagement on a particular item of information. Items come into our awareness, we attend to a particular item, and then we decide whether to act. 20) A strong trigger of this effect is that the mental capability of humans is limited and the receptiveness of information is hence limited as well. Attention is used to filter out the most important information by the human brain from a large pool of information surrounding the human in the digital age. A number of software applications either explicitly or implicitly take attention economy into consideration in their user interface design, based on the realization that if it takes the user too long to locate something, they will find it through another application. This is done, for instance, by creating filters to make sure the first content a viewer sees is relevant, of interest, or with the approval of demographics. "..an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Goldhaber have adopted the term "attention economy" (Davenport & Beck 2001). Next


The word frequency effect for recognition memory. - Springer Link

Attention hypothesisOf the elevated-attention hypothesis has important impli- cations for one versus another theory of memory. Prior Findings. The longevity and popularity of the elevated-attention hypothesis is somewhat surprising, because very little di- rect evidence supports it for recognition memory. Indeed, there is a considerable amount of. English teachers looking at critical literacy in Queensland can require their students to explore stereotyping in Australian media. What better place to start than television advertisements? There are, at last count, 480 Australian advertisements reviewed on this site, available through the Australia filter. Each of the ads listed here is written up, with a You Tube link, and in many cases has details about where to download the video. Click on the links provided (dotted red line indicates a hyperlink). Next


Understanding Intelligence A Summary and an Adjustable-Attention.

Attention hypothesisUnderstanding Intelligence A Summary and an Adjustable-Attention Hypothesis. Citation. Cowan, N. 2005. Understanding Intelligence A Summary and an Adjustable-Attention Hypothesis. In O. Wilhelm & R. W. Engle Eds. Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence pp. 469-488. Thousand Oaks, CA, US. The history of controlled laboratory research on interactions of human consciousness with physical random systems tracks the development of microelectronics and computers. The first large database experiments were conducted by Helmut Schmidt, at Boeing Laboratories, in the late ’60s and early ’70s. The number of experiments and investigators grew over the next decade, and in 1979, Robert Jahn, at Princeton University, established the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratory to focus on an engineering approach to the question whether sensitive electronic devices including random components might be affected by special states of consciousness, including strong emotions and directed intention. At the PEAR lab, the primary experiment used a custom designed Random Event Generator (REG or RNG) incorporating a well-developed commercial source of electronic white noise. This bench-top experiment provided control over parameters such as the speed and size of the samples drawn from the random sequence of bits. For example, it might be set to collect a 200 bit sample at a rate of 1000 bits per second, and to register a trial each second consisting of the sum of the 200 bits. The equipment displayed the current output trial value and a running mean as feedback to the operator. The experiment used a tripolar protocol, with instructions to maintain an intention to achieve either a high or a low mean, or to let the machine generate baseline data. Over more than a decade this basic experiment yielded an enormous database, with a bottom line indicating a small but significant effect of human intention on random data sequences. Next


Two tests of a neural attention hypothesis for auditory psychophysics.

Attention hypothesisA theory of neural attention is presented, and it is argued that intensity attention bands and critical bands of frequency are simply two manifestations of it. This suggests studying it by taking observations on the one variable while manipulating the other over a large range. The first experiment is a conventional magnitude. This article includes a discussion of the implications of a psychiatric comorbidity hypothesis for increased special education support, further delineation of subtypes of learning disabilities, therapeutic, psychological or psychopharmacologic treatment, and collaborative efforts between professionals in mental health and learning disabilities. A longitudinal study of the risk for a subsequent major depression. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with ADHD, depression or dysthymia, thus providing additional support for the psychiatric comorbidity hypothesis. Kavale The hypothesis that social skills deficits in learning disabilities may reflect the comorbidity of learning disabilities with psychiatric diagnoses is partially supported by prevalence rates of learning disabilities within samples of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive or dysthymic disorder. An examination of the psychosocial aspects of learning disabled adolescents. Concern about the social functioning and psychological adjustment of children and adolescents with learning disabilities is prevalent among parents, professionals and researchers (La Greca & Vaughn, 1992). Although social skills deficits have been established to some degree in the majority of studies on individuals with learning disabilities, and despite little doubt that social or behavioral difficulties exist in this population, social skills deficits do not appear to be exclusively or invariably characteristic of children or adolescents with learning disabilities. Next


Two tests of a neural attention hypothesis for auditory psychophysics

Attention hypothesisTwo tests of a neural attention hypothesis for auditory psychophysics. R. DUNCAN LUCE and DAVID M. GREEN. Laboratory of Psychophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. A theory of neural attention is presented, and it is argued that intensity attention bands and critical bands of frequency are. Effects of alcohol on divided attention and on accuracy of attentional shift. Two experiments are described in which a group of students (39 in experiment 1, 32 in experiment 2) carried out: 1- a dual task, 2- a test of auditory attentional shift, both under two conditions: A- after drinking an alcoholic beverage until reaching a blood-alcohol level of between 0.3 and 0.4 gr/l in experiment 1, and between 0.2 and 0.3 gr/l in experiment 2; B- after drinking a similar beverage with negligible alcohol content. E-mail: dpsjrm0@es he consumption of alcohol is one of the main indirect causes of road accidents. Results showed that these low blood-alcohol levels –below the legal limit for car drivers in Spain– impaired accuracy in attentional shift and affected the capacity for dividing attention. This incontrovertible fact makes the study of the effects of alcohol on driving one of the most important areas within psychological research in this field. Possible implications for driving behaviour and road safety are discussed. It also means that the analysis of the effects of different blood-alcohol levels on the diverse psychological processes and crucial skills necessary for driving has become, over the years, one of the most prolifically studied issues in road safety. Se describen dos experimentos, en los cuales un grupo de estudiantes (39 en el experimento 1, 32 en el experimento 2) llevaron a cabo: 1- una tarea dual 2- una prueba de cambio atencional auditivo. Indeed, as early as the 1960s and 70s, rigorous studies were carried out in Spain on the effects of alcohol on driving (Linares Maza, 1971), and even at that time, these pioneering studies strongly recommended the prohibition of alcohol consumption by those in charge of a vehicle. En ambos casos, los sujetos pasaron por dos condiciones: A- ingeran una bebida alcohlica hasta alcanzar un nivel de alcohol en sangre entre 0,3 y 0,4 gr/l en el experimento 1 y entre 0,2 y 0,3 gr/l en el experimento 2, y B- ingeran un preparado similar con un contenido en alcohol despreciable. Nowadays, it is widely known that the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system (CNS) lead, among other things, to: a false state of euphoria, an unfounded sensation of security and confidence, increased reaction time, reduced visual capacity and motor performance, impaired capacities of judgement, reasoning and attention, and a false perception of speed and distance (Spanish General Directorate of Traffic (DGT), 1996). Los resultados muestran que esos bajos niveles de alcohol en sangre, permitidos a los conductores en el estado espaol, empeoran la precisin del cambio atencional y afectan a la capacidad de dividir la atencin. All of the above constitute important causes of road accidents. Se discuten las posibles implicaciones para la conduccin y la seguridad vial. Statistics on the relationship between high alcohol intake and serious accidents have become increasingly. Next


The word frequency effect for recognition memory and the elevated.

Attention hypothesisEmpirical tests were conducted on theelevated-attention hypothesis that low-frequency LF words are better recognized than high-frequency HF words because LF words attract more attention than do HF words e.g. Glanzer & Adams, 1990. The elevated-attention hypothesis predicts that the hit rate advantage for LF. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the selective attention hypothesis in a group of Iranian outpatients with depressive disorder. Methods: Causal-comparative and correlation methods were used to analyze the data. Of them, 31 patients diagnosed with depression were assigned in the depressive group and 29 nondepressed individuals were observed as control (normal) group. Participation in this study was completely voluntary. Participants were screened by the structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV (SCID), answered to Beck depression inventory–II (BDI-II), and took part in the Visual Dot-Probe (VDP) task. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and t test. Results: The results showed that the depressed group got higher score in BDI compared to the control group and this difference was statistically significant. But the differences between two groups regarding attention biases were not large enough to be significant. Conclusion: The following results could be because of the different reasons such as culture. Next


Developmental dyslexia The visual. PDF Download Available

Attention hypothesisDec 19, 2017. Full-Text Paper PDF Developmental dyslexia The visual attention span hypothesis. Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory retrieval, but there is uncertainty about its specific role. Research in the attentional domain has shown that superior parietal lobe (SPL) regions along the intraparietal sulcus are implicated in the voluntary orienting of attention to relevant aspects of the environment, whereas inferior parietal lobe (IPL) regions at the temporo-parietal junction mediate the automatic allocation of attention to task-relevant information. Here we propose that the SPL and the IPL play conceptually similar roles in episodic memory retrieval. On the other hand, the supramarginal gyrus of IPL is consistently active when the attentional capture by memory contents is supposedly maximal, i.e., for strong vs. familiar memories, for memories retrieved with high vs. We introduce a model of episodic memory retrieval that characterizes contributions of posterior parietal cortex. We hypothesize that the SPL allocates top-down attention to memory retrieval, whereas the IPL mediates the automatic, bottom-up attentional capture by retrieved memory contents. By reviewing the existing f MRI literature, we show that the posterior intraparietal sulcus of SPL is consistently active when the need for top-down assistance to memory retrieval is supposedly maximal, e.g., for memories retrieved with low vs. Next


Testing the dorsal stream attention hypothesis - Gestalt ReVision

Attention hypothesisNov 18, 2011. Registered office Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH. UK. Visual Cognition. Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information Testing the dorsal stream attention hypothesis Electrophysiological correlates. This is a glossary of terms that appear in Mendel's paper and other areas of Mendel Web. It is not meant to be exhaustive, and is aimed primarily at students in secondary and undergraduate schools. Although you may find many of the terms familiar, the definitions and explanations frequently raise issues of translation and etymology, and contain links to Mendel's original text, to other documents in Mendel Web, and to resources throughout the World Wide Web. Please send corrections and suggestions to , fit or fitting. Mendel uses "chance" ("Zufall" or "zufällig") in at least two distinct ways: first, to describe the indeterminacy concerning which individual pollen cell will unite with which individual egg cell; and second, to describe the actual fluctuations of his data, relative to a fixed or predicted ratio. a set of identifiable and accurately describable traits or qualities which are essential marks of a particular group, species, family, etc. the set of distinguishing features of a class of objects. definable traits that can be transmitted to offspring. any detectable qualities of the phenotype of an organism. whatever distinguishes a plant or group of plants from others. In the first few sections of the paper Mendel uses these terms to refer exclusively to particular aspects of the appearance of the peas and plants. This is a peculiar translation of the German word vermitteln which in modern German means to mediate or to act as a mediator. the course of events considered as a self-sufficient power; Fate. the unknown or unpredictable element in events that seems to have no assignable cause. (adj) unexpected, random, fortuitous or accidental. Later, with the introduction of the term "hybrid-character", he sometimes uses "character" to refer both to qualities of appearance and the qualities of internal composition (what we might now call "genetic make-up"). Despite the modest introduction, this sentence presents one of the most important conclusions of the paper; it is the generality of Mendel's claim which motivates the discussion of laws of combination in the following section. But even the term "mediated" expresses poorly what Mendel is talking about here; he is describing an alteration or transformation in the fertilized egg of the hybrid that results in that hybrid behaving like one of the constant (or parental) forms found in . By representing the reproductive contribution of each parent as an algebraic series (i.e. Next


Neuroscience - What is the relationship between visual attention.

Attention hypothesisMy short answer would be that there is no clear relationship between these two models about how visual information processing works in the brain. However, the terminology and evidence overlaps considerably which makes this confusing. One way to think about this is that the two models are explaining different stages of. But with our senses bombarded 24/7 by media, notifications and various digital devices, it is harder than ever to maintain attention in 2018. A natural pathway to sharp, sustained attention, nootropics are increasingly used as an alternative to stimulant-driven synthetics. This guide discusses the best of these nootropics for attention, and how one advanced stack combines them for superior attention-enhancing results. In the professional and academic arenas, inattention may induce a series of negative outcomes — e.g., a distracted listener is prone to missing due dates, mucking up assignments and important meetings, diminished ability for studying, and potential for intense stress responses that further worsen a poor attention span. Poor attention span may seem like a fleeting issue, but it can hold back peak cognition and have a far-ranging negative effect on overall life performance. bodily state — although some catecholamines may conditionally operate as an excitatory or inhibitory (“low activity”) neurotransmitters, e.g., dopamine. The neurotransmitters emphasized by the Catecholamine Hypothesis include: Stimulant use is now widespread. Smart drugs available by prescription are by far the most popular pills for enhancing attention. Caffeine counts as another stimulant that is often over-used in the quest for sharper attention. Next


Attention - Wikipedia

Attention hypothesisIn cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates. These models may be considered loosely as metaphors which are used to describe internal processes and to generate hypotheses that are falsifiable. Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage. Riemann included the hypothesis in a paper, “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (“On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity”), published in the November 1859 edition of Other than the “trivial zeros” along the negative real axis, all the solutions to the Riemann zeta function must lie in the critical strip of complex numbers whose real part is between 0 and 1. The Riemann hypothesis is that all these nontrivial zeros actually lie on the critical line, or Re(S) = Leonhard Euler in the 18th century. (For this reason, it is sometimes called the Euler zeta function. For ζ(1), this series is simply the harmonic series, known since antiquity to increase without bound—i.e., its sum is infinite.) Euler achieved instant fame when he proved in 1735 that ζ(2) = π/6, a problem that had eluded the greatest mathematicians of the era, including the Swiss Bernoulli family (Jakob, Johann, and Daniel). More generally, Euler discovered (1739) a relation between the value of the zeta function for even integers and the Bernoulli numbers, which are the coefficients in the Taylor series expansion of exponential function.) Still more amazing, in 1737 Euler discovered a formula relating the zeta function, which involves summing an infinite sequence of terms containing the positive integers, and an infinite product that involves every prime number: = 1 in the complex plane. Riemann knew that the zeta function equals zero for all negative even integers −2, −4, −6,… (so-called trivial zeros) and that it has an infinite number of zeros in the critical strip of complex numbers that fall strictly between the lines . Subsequently it was shown by various mathematicians that a large proportion of the solutions must lie on the critical line, though the frequent “proofs” that all the nontrivial solutions are on it have been flawed. Next


A disproof of the single channel hypothesis - SAGE Journals

Attention hypothesisON THE DIVISION OF ATTENTION A DISPROOF OF THE. SINGLE CHANNEL HYPOTHESIS. D. ALAN ALLPORT, BARBARA ANTONIS AND PATRICIA REYNOLDS. Reading University. In dichotic listening, subjects are apparently unable to attend simultaneously to two concurrent, auditory speech messages. However, in. Table = read.table("Table Anova2.txt", header=TRUE); Table r = c(t(as.matrix(Table))) # response data f = c("No Breakfast", "Light Breakfast", "Full Breakfast") # treatment levels k = 3 # number of treatment levels n = 5 # observations per treatment mt = gl(k, 1, n*k, factor(f)) # matching treatment av = aov(r ~ mt) summary(av) which indicates that the test statistic F is equal to 4.9326, as we obtained in Excel. The corresponding right-tail probability is 0.027, which means that if the significance level is 0.05, the test statistic would be in the rejection region, and therefore, the null-hypothesis would be rejected. Hence, this indicates that the means are not equal, or in other words, that sample values give sufficient evidence that not all means are the same. In terms of the example this means that breakfast (and its size) does have an effect on children's attention span. Next


Selective Attention Simply Psychology

Attention hypothesisA bottleneck restricts the rate of flow, as, say, in the narrow neck of a milk bottle. The narrower the bottleneck, the lower the rate of flow. Broadbent's, Treisman's, and Deutsch and Deutsch Models of Attention are all bottleneck models because they predict we cannot consciously attend to all of our sensory input at the same. Hypothesis, theory, possibility - a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices"hypothetical - based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence; "theories about the extinction of dinosaurs are still highly conjectural"; "the supposed reason for his absence"; "suppositious reconstructions of dead languages"; "hypothetical situation"Next he touched upon the Indians, and upon the extraordinary colony of anthropoid apes, which might be looked upon as an advance upon the pithecanthropus of Java, and as coming therefore nearer than any known form to that , and instead of going upwards to a principle descends to the other end; in the higher of the two, the soul passes out of hypotheses, and goes up to a principle which is above hypotheses, making no use of images as in the former case, but proceeding only in and through the ideas themselves. Next


Developmental dyslexia The visual attention span deficit hypothesis

Attention hypothesisThe visual attention VA span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoreti- cal accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, inde- pendently of a phonological disorder. ABSTRACT - Although it is widely accepted that vividly presented information is inherently more persuasive than information presented in a more pallid and dull form, the empirical evidence reveals little support for this belief. Wood (1983) ,"The Vividness Effect: Making a Mountain Out of a Molehill? Tybout, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 540-542. Five hypotheses that purport to explain the lack of evidence for the vividness effect are outlined and evaluated. ", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 10, eds. ABSTRACT - Although it is widely accepted that vividly presented information is inherently more persuasive than information presented in a more pallid and dull form, the empirical evidence reveals little support for this belief. Five hypotheses that purport to explain the lack of evidence for the vividness effect are outlined and evaluated. For the past several years, we have been exploring how vividly presented information affects attitudes. Information may be described as vivid, that is, as likely to attract and hold our attention and to excite the imagination to the extent that it is (a) emotionally interesting, (b) concrete and imagery-provoking, and (c) proximate in a sensory, temporal, or spatial way" (Nisbett and Ross 1980 p.45). We will refer to the "vividness effect" as the differentially persuasive impact that such information is thought to have on attitudes, relative to information that is presented in a more pallid and dull form. Our investigations have examined vividness effects as a function of age (Gottlieb Taylor and Ruderman 1977), type of message (Winkler Taylor and Falcone 1979), and type of appeal (Winkler Taylor Tebbetts Jemmott and Johnson 1979). In all our efforts to pin down the parameters of the vividness effect, we have been hampered by one striking problem: He nave found very little evidence for the existence of a vividness effect. Next


Selective attention and the brain a hypothesis concerning the.

Attention hypothesisMed Hypotheses. 1985 Nov;183221-64. Selective attention and the brain a hypothesis concerning the hippocampal--ventral striatal axis, the mediation of selective attention, and the pathogenesis of attentional disorders. Margulies DM. The mechanisms mediating selective attention are not currently known. Dysfunctional. This hypothesis contrasts with the mainstream archaeological orthodoxy that the North American continent was first populated by people from Asia, either by the Bering land bridge (i.e. Beringia) at least 13,500 years ago, in Ice Age Europe migrated to North America by boat along the pack ice of the north Atlantic Ocean. They brought their methods of making stone tools with them and provided the basis for the later (c. 13,000 years ago) Clovis technology that spread throughout North America. The hypothesis is based on similarities between European Solutrean and Clovis lithic technologies. Next


Anthropogenic noise affects risk assessment and attention the.

Attention hypothesisFeb 12, 2010. Two hypotheses may explain how boat noise affected risk assessment it masked an approaching predator's sound; and/or it reallocated some of the crabs' finite attention, effectively distracting them, and thus preventing them from responding to an approaching threat. We found no support for the first. Was the world created by a non-physical force that we can communicate with and possibly influence with our minds, thereby participating in the creation of our own reality? These are the grandiose existential questions central to this documentary, which introduces viewers to the concept of the Simulation Hypothesis. Teasing that there are cutting edge physics experiments that imply Simulation Hypothesis could be true, the film begins by reviewing two primary philosophies regarding the nature of life: materialism and idealism. First introduced by Democritus, materialism credits the atom as the basis for all reality, making consciousness the result of a material process. Plato, on the other hand, believed it is the mind itself that gives way to matter; therefore reality is borne from ideas. Next


Central attention is serial, but midlevel and peripheral attention are.

Attention hypothesisJul 7, 2016. In this brief review, we argue that attention operates along a hierarchy from peripheral through central mechanisms. We further argue that these mechanisms are. Central attention is serial, but midlevel and peripheral attention are parallel—A hypothesis. Authors; Authors and affiliations. Benjamin J. Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. It is the taking possession by the mind in clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneous objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of consciousness are of its essence. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of limited processing resources. Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology. Next


Testing the attention shift hypothesis as an account for the. - VUB

Attention hypothesisSmaller Simon effects when stimulus locations are repeated on successive trials rather than alternated have been explained by the attention shift hypothesis, suggesting that shifts of at- tention result in interfering response codes. We investigated whether the attention shift hypoth- esis can also explain smaller flanker effects. It is suggested that in the brain the internal attentional searchlight, proposed by Treisman and others, is controlled by the reticular complex of the thalamus (including the closely related perigeniculate nucleus) and that the expression of the searchlight is the production of rapid bursts of firing in a subset of thalamic neurons. It is also suggested that the conjunctions produced by the attentional searchlight are mediated by rapidly modifiable synapses--here called Malsburg synapses--and especially by rapid bursts acting on them. The activation of Malsburg synapses is envisaged as producing transient cell assemblies, including "vertical" ones that temporarily unite neurons at different levels in the neural hierarchy. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. Next


Attention, awareness, and individual differences in language. - nflrc

Attention hypothesisCentre for Language Studies. ATTENTION, AWARENESS, AND INDIVIDUAL. DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING. Richard Schmidt schmidt@ The University of Hawaii at Manoa, U. S. A. Abstract. The Noticing Hypothesis—an hypothesis that input does not become intake for language learning unless it is. Abstract: Abstract What is the relationship between top-down and bottom-up attention? Are both types of attention tightly interconnected, or are they independent? We investigated this by testing a large representative sample of the Dutch population on two attentional tasks: a visual search task gauging the efficiency of top-down attention and a singleton capture task gauging bottom-up attention. On both tasks we found typical performance—i.e., participants displayed a significant search slope on the search task and significant slowing caused by the unique, but irrelevant, object on the capture task. Moreover, the high levels of significance we observed indicate that the current set-up provided very high signal to noise ratios, and thus enough power to accurately unveil existing effects. Importantly, in this robust investigation we did not observe any correlation in performance between tasks. The use of Bayesian statistics strongly confirmed that performance on both tasks was uncorrelated. We argue that the current results suggest that there are two attentional systems that operate independently. Next


Division of Attention The Single-Channel Hypothesis Revisited

Attention hypothesisTHE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1989 IIA 1 1-17. Division of Attention The Single-Channel. Hypothesis Revisited. William H. Gladstones and Michael A. Regan. Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Robert B. Lee. Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, Canberra, Australia. A long-term, stable romantic relationship with a committed, caring partner has many psychological benefits, which we know from the oodles of psychological research published about them. So it’s a good thing to try and protect one’s relationship from external influences. One of the most difficult to recover from and damaging influences is cheating. If cheating will harm a relationship (and cheating appears to be one of the primary reasons cited in many, if not most, relationship breakups), what can be done to minimize it? After all, isn’t it human nature — and the nature of temptation — to constantly look for desirable alternatives? One of the ways people look to protect their long-term relationship is to simply remain Research has demonstrated that being inattentive to attractive members of the opposite sex generally promotes relationship success. But new research (De Wall et al., 2011) suggests it’s not so simple. If the circumstances or situation implicitly limit a person’s attention to an attractive alternative, that alternative suddenly becomes “forbidden fruit.”And all that more attractive. Next


Attention hypothesis Article about attention hypothesis by The Free.

Attention hypothesisLooking for attention hypothesis? Find out information about attention hypothesis. The theory that a person's attention to objects and other persons is selectively drawn toward areas of great personal interest Explanation of attention hypothesis. Riemann included the hypothesis in a paper, “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (“On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity”), published in the November 1859 edition of Other than the “trivial zeros” along the negative real axis, all the solutions to the Riemann zeta function must lie in the critical strip of complex numbers whose real part is between 0 and 1. The Riemann hypothesis is that all these nontrivial zeros actually lie on the critical line, or Re(S) = Leonhard Euler in the 18th century. (For this reason, it is sometimes called the Euler zeta function. For ζ(1), this series is simply the harmonic series, known since antiquity to increase without bound—i.e., its sum is infinite.) Euler achieved instant fame when he proved in 1735 that ζ(2) = π/6, a problem that had eluded the greatest mathematicians of the era, including the Swiss Bernoulli family (Jakob, Johann, and Daniel). More generally, Euler discovered (1739) a relation between the value of the zeta function for even integers and the Bernoulli numbers, which are the coefficients in the Taylor series expansion of exponential function.) Still more amazing, in 1737 Euler discovered a formula relating the zeta function, which involves summing an infinite sequence of terms containing the positive integers, and an infinite product that involves every prime number: = 1 in the complex plane. Next


Does Children's Watching of Television Cause Attention Problems.

Attention hypothesisWe retested the hypothesis in a part of the Aarhus Birth Cohort, which consists of all children born from 1990 at the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. As part of a follow-up program for children born in 1991–1992 and examined at 8 months of age, participating mothers were asked about their child's television-watching. One system, which includes parts of the intraparietal cortex and superior frontal cortex, is involved in preparing and applying goal-directed (top-down) selection for stimuli and responses. This system is also modulated by the detection of stimuli. The other system, which includes the temporoparietal cortex and inferior frontal cortex, and is largely lateralized to the right hemisphere, is not involved in top-down selection. Instead, this system is specialized for the detection of behaviourally relevant stimuli, particularly when they are salient or unexpected. We propose that the ventral stream of projections from the striate cortex to the inferotemporal cortex plays the major role in the perceptual identification of objects, while the dorsal stream projecting from the striate cortex to the posterior parietal region mediates the required sensorimotor transformations for visually guided actions directed at such objects. My question: What is the relationship between these two proposed networks? As in do they affect each other, or is one a preliminary network that occurs before the other? There have been studies on this but I am having difficulty making sense of them. Next


What Is Learned During Automatization? The Role of Attention in.

Attention hypothesisThe data supported the attention hypothesis and therefore the instance theory. This article concerns what is learned during automatization. This is an important question in the automaticity literature, especially from the perspective of memory-based theories, such as the instance theory of automaticity Logan, 1988,1990. Multiple theories of Attention-Deficit/Hyper- activity Disorder (ADHD) have been proposed, but one that has stood the test of time is the dopamine deficit theory. We review the narrow literature from recent brain imaging and molecular genetic studies that has improved our understanding of the role of dopamine in manifestation of symptoms of ADHD, performance deficits on neuropsychological tasks, and response to stimulant medication that constitutes the most common treatment of this disorder. First, we consider evidence of the based on the recent literature that (1) confirms abnormalities in dopamine-modulated frontal-striatal circuits, reflected by size (smaller-than-average components) and function (hypoactivation); (2) clarifies the agonist effects of stimulant medication on dopaminergic mechanisms at the synaptic and circuit level of analysis; and (3) challenges the most-widely accepted ADHD-related neural abnormality in the dopamine system (higher-than-normal dopamine transporter [DAT] density). Second, we discuss possible based on recent molecular genetic literature, including (1) multiple replications that confirm the association of ADHD with candidate genes related to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and the DAT; (2) replication of differences in performance of neuropsychological tasks as a function of the DRD4 genotype; and (3) multiple genome-wide linkage scans that demonstrate the limitations of this method when applied to complex disorders but implicate additional genes that may contribute to the genetic basis of ADHD. Third, we review possible based on recent studies of (1) toxic substances that may affect the dopamine system in early development and contribute substantially to the etiology of ADHD; (2) fetal adaptations in dopamine systems in response to stress that may alter early development with lasting effects, as proposed by the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis; and (3) gene-environment interactions that may moderate selective damage or adaptation of dopamine neurons. Based on these reviews, we identify critical issues about etiologic subtypes of ADHD that may involve dopamine, discuss methods that could be used to address these issues, and review old and new theories that may direct research in this area in the future. Next


Sex-Role Learning A Test of the Selective Attention Hypothesis - Jstor

Attention hypothesisTion Hypothesis. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 49, 13-23. Both social learning and cognitive- developmental theories propose that acquisition of sex-role knowledge depends upon some mechanism of selective attention to same-sex models. In 2 experiments, pictures of a male and female model performing matched acts were. A bottleneck restricts the rate of flow, as, say, in the narrow neck of a milk bottle. The narrower the bottleneck, the lower the rate of flow. Broadbent's, Treisman's, and Deutsch and Deutsch Models of Attention are all bottleneck models because they predict we cannot consciously attend to all of our sensory input at the same time. This limited capacity for paying attention is therefore a bottleneck and the models each try to explain how the material that passes through the bottleneck is selected. Donald Broadbent is recognized as one of the major contributors to the information processing approach, which started with his work with air traffic controllers during the war. Next


Division of attention The single-channel hypothesis revisited The.

Attention hypothesisTwo experiments are reported in which subjects performed two forced-paced serial reaction time tasks separately and together at their maximum sustainable rates of information processing. Experiment 1 investigated the effects on the relationship between single- and dual-task performance of using tasks with the same or. Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach (please note that it's "bottom up" and "bottoms up" which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers when he's trying to close for the night! In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories. These two methods of reasoning have a very different "feel" to them when you're conducting research. Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning. Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Even though a particular study may look like it's purely deductive (e.g., an experiment designed to test the hypothesized effects of some treatment on some outcome), most social research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning processes at some time in the project. In fact, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that we could assemble the two graphs above into a single circular one that continually cycles from theories down to observations and back up again to theories. Even in the most constrained experiment, the researchers may observe patterns in the data that lead them to develop new theories. Next


Attention, Memory, and the Noticing Hypothesis - Wiley Online Library

Attention hypothesisAttention, Memory, and the. “Noticing” Hypothesis. Peter Robinson. University of Queensland. Schmidt 1990 claimed that consciousness, in the sense of awareness of the form of input at the level of “noticing“, is necessary to subsequent second language acquisition. SLA. This claim runs counter to Krashen's 1981 dual-. A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep deprived." Let's take a closer look at how a hypothesis is used, formed, and tested in scientific research. In the scientific method, whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps: The hypothesis is what the researchers' predict the relationship between two or more variables, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. It is only at this point that researchers begin to develop a testable hypothesis. In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. Next


Attention and Conscious Perception in the Hypothesis Testing Brain

Attention hypothesisApr 2, 2012. Here, the relation between attention and conscious perception is reviewed through the prism of predictive coding. This is the idea that the brain is essentially a sophisticated hypothesis tester Helmholtz, 1860; Gregory, 1980, which continually and at multiple spatiotemporal scales seeks to minimize the. “The systematic sterilization and killing of individuals with schizophrenia in Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945 was influenced by several factors. Perhaps, of greatest importance was a belief that schizophrenia was a simple Mendelian inherited disease, passed down from generation to generation. Yolken, “Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia,” Let me say right away that I’m not the greatest fan of Dr. Fuller Torrey, one of the authors of the quote that appears above. In Germany, this theory was promoted by Drs Ernst Rüdin and Franz Kallmann, among others.” — Dr. He’s given us a couple of organizations that are supposedly about dealing with the issue of “mental illness,” like the Treatment Advocacy Center (TAC) as well as the much better-known National Alliance the “mentally ill,” as in “we will impose our views and our will on you, whether you like it or not”). These organizations are not only funded in large part by Big Pharma (you need only to look at their donors’ list to see their names), but they also promote the idea of “mental illness” as a biological disorder or a disease or a so-called “chemical imbalance” (or something: the medical narrative constantly changes, in the hopes that sooner or later some kind of justification for thinking that schizophrenia is a medical problem will finally come along and justify the prejudicial bias of biological psychiatry that such a medical cause exist, regardless of whether there has ever been any actual medical evidence to support this bias or not). Torrey appears to be an advocate of the reintroduction of a mental hospital system that would use coercion to force drugs (and possibly other “treatments”) on people. I am completely opposed to all of these measures and to these ideas, and I am stating my own bias now so that you will know what it is as I examine the work that he and a co-author, Robert Yolken, produced in a paper that deals with the Nazi’s destruction or sterilization of most of the schizophrenics in Germany, which was done on the basis of eugenics: the idea that some people are so genetically inferior that they are, essentially, unworthy of life (or of the expense that it takes to support them in an institution which is paid for by the state, such as a mental hospital). Next


Attention hypothesis As a rule, attention cannot be focused on more than one thing at a time. This concept was discussed in connection with working memory in Chapter 6. Working memory is, for all practical purposes, a synonym for focused consciousness or attention. George Miller discovered in the 1950s that primary memory could hold about seven (plus or minus two) items at the same time. Working memory therefore acts like a limited capacity store. How does the cognitive system determine which material is let into this limited storage area for intensive processing? Next


Attention hypothesis Example 1: Suppose you have a die and suspect that it is biased towards the number three, and so run an experiment in which you throw the die 10 times and count that the number three comes up 4 times. Define = the number of times the number three occurs in 10 trials. This random variable has the binomial distribution where π is the population parameter corresponding to the probability of success on any trial. We use the following null and alternative hypotheses: H. and so we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the die is not biased towards the number 3 with 95% confidence. Example 2: We suspect that a coin is biased towards heads. Next


Attention hypothesis The swoon hypothesis is any of a number of ideas that aim to explain the resurrection of Jesus, proposing that Jesus did not die on the cross, but merely fell unconscious ("swooned"), and was later revived in the tomb in the same mortal body. This 200-year-old hypothesis is still the subject of debate to this day. Early proponents of this theory include German Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, who suggested in around 1780, that Jesus deliberately feigned his death, using drugs provided by the physician Luke to appear as a spiritual messiah and get Israel to abandon the idea of a political messiah. In this interpretation of the events described in the Gospels, Jesus was resuscitated by Joseph of Arimathea, with whom he shared a connection through a secret order of the Essenes — a group that appear in many of the "swoon" theories. Around 1800, Karl Venturini proposed that a group of supporters dressed in white — who were, with Jesus, members of a "secret society" — had not expected him to survive the crucifixion, but heard groaning from inside the tomb, where Jesus had regained consciousness in the cool, damp air. They then frightened away the guards and rescued him. A third rationalist theologian, Heinrich Paulus, wrote in works from 1802 onwards that he believed that Jesus had fallen into a temporary coma and somehow revived without help in the tomb. He was critical of the vision hypothesis and argued that the disciples must have believed that God had resurrected Jesus. Next