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Quick & Easy Formative Assessments - Squarehead

Formative assessment essayQuick & Easy Formative Assessments One Minute Essay A one minute essay question is focused with a specific goal that can actually be answered within a minute or , participating students indicated that writing improvement suggestions on their work during the development stage of writing was more important than constructive feedback after the assignment had already been turned in. Eighty percent of students were most interested in their final grade after they had already submitted their work. When asked about feedback during the writing process, however, a staggering ninety-two percent of students said that “edits to improve writing” would be the most useful type of feedback—with just four percent of students interested in the potential grade their draft would receive. If the survey is an accurate representation of the student population as a whole, the time teachers spend painstakingly grading and providing thoughtful feedback to students on their final drafts isn’t as useful as they thought. Constructive feedback is critical to the learning process but is most effective when provided to students when they’re able to incorporate that feedback. Sure, your students might remember your suggestions on their next assignment, but wouldn’t they learn more if they had access to that insight during the writing process? This is where formative assessment comes in: A powerful tool that helps educators direct their time and resources into what matters most for their students. It’s fluid and flexible; responsive, rather than rigid. By placing as much emphasis on formative assessment as summative, teachers are better equipped to establish a curriculum that meets the individual needs of their students. Next

Formative assessment - Taylor & Francis Online

Formative assessment essayIntroduction. These two books are published at a time of growth of interest in formative assessment. They contribute to the debates in this area in a variety of ways and they provide reflec- tion on key issues from both a perspective of practice and of research. In the essay that follows I present a review of each book, identifying. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT 2 Abstract This paper explores the discussion of formative assessment in the classroom. It will do so by focusing on four discussions: (1) Describe how formative assessment is used in a class. (2) Explain the role psychometric models play in the creation of your assessment. (3) Explain the use of observational situations in formative Assessment. (4) Discuss expected challenges in your assessments, and how could they be addressed. Next

Formative Assessment Tracking Student Learning in Real Time

Formative assessment essayMar 30, 2017. Formative assessment occurs regularly in the learning process usually on a daily basis and thus does not carry the weight of something like a final exam or paper. “Educators need to understand what each student already knows, and where that student needs to go next in the teaching process.". Book Cover for ‘Choose your own adventure books " data-medium-file="https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77d.jpg? w=190&h=300" data-large-file="https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77d.jpg? w=317" class="alignright size-medium wp-image-7266" src="https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77d.jpg? w=190&h=300" alt="Book Cover for 'Choose your own adventure books" width="190" height="300" srcset="https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77d.jpg? w=190&h=300 190w, https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77d.jpg? w=95&h=150 95w, https://londonexternal.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/3743784398_757019f77317w" sizes="(max-width: 190px) 100vw, 190px" /I remember having one of those books of Choose your Own Adventure when I was a little girl. If you also like reading, these books offered an exciting new possibility over the universe of just one closed end. As I was uploading the formative assessment essays of Renaissance and Restoration, it just occurred to me that formative assessments are a bit like these books. As the date for uploading essays for level 4 draws near, I thought I might share with you my thoughts and try to give you an insight in this crucial process of our studies. One of the first things you realize with formative assessment, as with the aforementioned books, is that there is not only one valid possibility, but many equally valid ones. If you look through the examiners’ reports, which I really recommend, you will see that there are many ways to successfully tackle one single rubric. Next

Questions and Answers About Formative

Formative assessment essayWhat Teachers Really Need to Know About Formative Assessment. by Laura Greenstein. Table of Contents. Chapter 2. Questions and Answers About Formative Assessment Introduction: Innovations that have strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and frequently significant learning gains. 140 This conclusion from influential review of research by Black and Wiliam (1998a, 1998b) to formative assessment has altered the face of evaluation in present education system. This comprehensive review emphasises the possibility of assessment in increasing standards i.e. Through research, it was found that students gain accomplishment when teachers rely on formative assessment/s. Another result from their analysis claims that certain formative assessment practices greatly increased the accomplishment of low-performing pupils. Summative evaluation can be described as summary assessments of individual student performance such as tests, examinations and end-of-year marks. It may be used for promotion, certification or admission to high degrees of instruction. Next

Formative Assessment Why, What, and

Formative assessment essayFormative assessment works! This phrase, or some paraphrased version of it, is voiced with increasing frequency in many parts of the world. But why are more and more. “We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken by teachers — and by their students in assessing themselves — that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. The purpose of the educational process focus on students’ learning, and when students use what has been taught in real life situations, then it can be said that the students are learning and that the objective is being achieved. Can I state that my students are learning based on a multiple choice test at the end of a unit? The Future of Assessment: Shaping Teaching and Learning, New York. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet student needs”. The answers of these questions may vary according to the type of teaching method a person uses. If this person uses a traditional teaching method that only seeks learners’ knowledge accumulation, then he or she could say “yes”. For the reasons above, it is important to apply a different assessment with a formative function that according to Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2005) aids learning by generating feedback information that is of benefit to students and to teachers. Rethinking Formative Assessment in HE: a theoretical model and seven principles of good feedback practice. However, as times have changed and the ways in which people conceive the educational process have changed too, I consider that it is necessary to restate the way in which students are assessed and focus more on students’ performance in order to promote learning and involve them in their own learning process through the use of formative assessment rather than traditional or summative assessment whose aim lies on testing knowledge. Feedback on performance, in class or on assignments, facilitates students to restructure their understanding/skills and build more powerful ideas and capabilities. Therefore, if a student takes a test and when he receives his score in terms of numbers or letters and he sees a bad grade, it can give him a negative emotional impact that could discourage him from continuing learning, and the next time he takes a test he will do it just for the sake of getting a good score. This kind of assessment is called Formative assessment. Assessment As Learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Next

Web 2.0 Use May Not Be Formative

Formative assessment essayAs I look at articles, blogs, and conference sessions, I see titles like Formative Assessment Through Clickers Formative Assessment Through Cell phones. Introduction: Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains. 140 This conclusion from influential review of research by Black and Wiliam (1998a, 1998b) on formative assessment has changed the face of assessment in current education system. This comprehensive review emphasises the potential of assessment in raising standards i.e. During research, it was found that pupils gain achievement when teachers rely on formative assessment/s. Another outcome from their study claims that certain formative assessment practices greatly increased the achievement of low-performing pupils. Summative assessment can be defined as summary assessments of individual pupil performance including tests, examinations and end-of-year marks. It can be used for promotion, certification or admission to higher levels of education. Next

What Are Formative Assessments and Why Should We Use Them.

Formative assessment essayFormative assessments, however, do not have to take an inordinate amount of time. While a few types such as extended responses or essays take considerably more time than others, many are quick and easy to use on a daily basis. On balance, the time they take from a lesson is well worth the information you gather and. MI’s industry-leading automated essay scoring system is able to automatically score a variety of constructed response items and can work with any number of predefined score-point ranges and rubric definitions. PEG® is currently being used to provide scores in both summative assessments and formative assessments. Since its acquisition of the legacy PEG system from Dr. Ellis Batten Page and his associates in 2002, MI has been an active force in AI scoring, also known as automated essay scoring. PEG is the industry's most researched AI system and has been used by MI to provide over two million scores to students over the past five years. Next

Free formative assessment Essays and Papers -

Formative assessment essayFree formative assessment papers, essays, and research papers. When it comes to written assignments, feedback is heavily based on summative assessment, that is, getting a grade or a percentage assigned to an essay along with some general comments. This feedback is typically received after the final version of the assignment was handed in and students are now focused on learning the next topic. In this case, students do not get the opportunity to re-think or re-write the work, and as a result do not see improvements on their next writing assignment. Therefore, as instructors, we need to increase the amount of formative feedback through the use of drafting and immediate feedback, allowing for the development and improvement of student writing skills. One way to implement formative feedback in written assignments is the use of drafting, i.e., students work on the assignment and the instructor provides them with feedback well before it is due (students work in tiers and make adjustments along the way). Here, the purpose of the feedback is to help students revise their draft and not to justify a grade. Drafting allows students the opportunity to make errors, and receive clear and constructive feedback on what they can do to correct these errors. One solution is to have students submit a portion of the assignment, such as a proposal, thesis statement, outline, or even an introductory paragraph, at least a few weeks before the assignment is due. No marks are assigned; however, it allows you to provide quick feedback on a small piece of their work while the students still have an opportunity to incorporate it. Next

Math Forum - Assessment in Math

Formative assessment essayInternet resources for assessment in the math classroom, one of the Math Forum's series of pages dealing with issues in math education. Summative assessments, or high stakes tests and projects, are what the eagle eye of our profession is fixated on right now, so teachers often find themselves in the tough position of racing, racing, racing through curriculum. They are used during instruction rather than at the end of a unit or course of study. Informal, or formative assessments are about checking for understanding in an effective way in order to guide instruction. And if we use them correctly, and often, yes, there is a chance instruction will slow when we discover we need to re-teach or review material the students wholly "did not get" -- and that's okay. Because sometimes we have to slow down in order to go quickly. Okay, let's move on."Ever assign the big project, test, or report at the end of a unit and find yourself shocked with the results, and not in a good way? The reason for the crummy results is not the students, but a lack of formative assessments along the way and discovering when, where, and how certain information needed to be re-taught or reviewed. What this means is that if we are about getting to the end, we may lose our audience, the students. If you find yourself wanting to spring a "gotcha" quiz on your students, ask yourself if it is really meant to collect important data or to freak them out and maybe "get them more serious about paying attention"? Next

Every Teacher's Guide to Assessment Edudemic

Formative assessment essayApr 29, 2015. It's not a stretch to say that assessment is a hot button issue in education; however, you'd be hard pressed to find an educator who doesn't see the value in measuring student progress. Assessments themselves have been vilified, when, in fact, it's why assessments are given and how the data is used that is. I found a simple way to check students’ essay writing. I read their thesis and then read the first sentence of each paragraph for their topic sentences. If the thesis, topic sentences, and thesis restatement in the concluding paragraph are not strong then almost always the rest of their essay is very weak. I have students peer-evaluate by reading each other’s paper and underlining the thesis, topic sentences and restatement in the concluding paragraph if these sentences do support the thesis. Students soon realize that often the first sentence of their paragraph does not tell the purpose of the paragraph. Many times they dive into the topic without showing how it relates to the thesis. Next

Formative and Summative Assessments Center for Teaching and.

Formative assessment essayFormative assessment refers to tools that identify misconceptions, struggles, and learning gaps along the way and assess how to close those gaps. It includes effective. Examples include comments on multiple paper drafts, criterion discussions during 1-on-1 conferences, and regular online quizzes. Encourage teacher. Current educational policy and practice asserts that increased standardized student testing is the key to improving student learning and is the most appropriate means for holding individual schools and teachers accountable for student learning. Instead, it has become a tool solely for summarizing what students have learned and for ranking students and schools. The problem is standardized tests cannot provide the information about student achievement that teachers and students need day-to-day. Classroom assessment can provide this kind of information. Formative assessment to inform instruction and guide student learning is being underutilized. Next

EMS Faculty Online Formative

Formative assessment essayEMS Faculty Online Formative Assessment, Resources and Discussions – Preparation for Summative Assessment Visit the Office of Admission for info on application process, financial aid, and student life. Visit the Office of Graduate Education for info on our many doctoral programs and the graduate education application process at the School of Medicine. ..the School of Medicine Search for School of Medicine faculty in our Faculty Directory or search their research interest through the Faculty Research Interest Directory. Weekly Essay Questions: Synthesis Essay Questions (SEQs). Weekly, formative, open book concept reasoning exercises in which students are given a brief written clinical scenario and asked to explain a clinical phenomenon and its basic science underpinnings. Throughout a teaching block, students complete SEQs at the end of each week. They then compare their answers to an ideal answer template as well as get feedback on their reasoning ability from their IQ group facilitator. Each week approximately 20-30 MCQs are posted electronically that highlight important teaching points. Students submit answers by the end of the week and receive immediate feedback about the correct response. These questions are representative of those given during the USMLE Part I. Next

Formative assessment Essay Example for Free -

Formative assessment essaySep 25, 2016. “We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken by teachers — and by their students in assessing themselves — that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is. Forms Of Assessment Essay, Research Paper If one was to draw a continuum on a piece of paper to plot out the different methods of language education the transactional method would be close to the center of the line, with the transmissional method and organic/Romantic method on the opposing ends. The transactional method of teaching stresses the facilitation of information from the teacher to the student. The transmissional method of instruction stresses direct instruction, usually with drill and practice type of exercises. Learning for the transactional teacher is a social process with the learner. Whole to part refers to the context with which the learner sees text. This refers to experiencing words as their individual graphophonemic parts. Knowledge is constructed by the learner and language is taught from ? Rather than learning words and graphemes individually, the learner sees them in full texts. These language methods are often shaped by the particular paradigm that each teacher chooses. Next

Diagnostic/Formative/Summative Assessment -

Formative assessment essayFormative assessment •Formative assessment is now seen as an integral part of the teaching and learning process. •It encompasses classroom interactions, questioning, Assessment for Learning (Af L) and its various permutations are used in educational institutions across the world and extensively supported by empirical research (Stobart 2008). However, Stobart observes “given that Af L has largely been driven by academics, it is surprising to find that the theoretical underpinnings have been very much in the background” (Stobart 2008 p149). This paper addresses this deficit in theory and its impact on the Af L framework. It examines the theoretical evidence which can support Af L. A much more solid theoretical basis exists than is perceived by the literature, and a clearer delineation of this will provide increased credibility for Af L within the education community. Next

A Formative Assessment System for Writing Improvement - NCTE

Formative assessment essayBetter be used to focus on formative assessment systems. t began simply enough. One of our colleagues arrived late to a depart- ment meeting, muttering some- thing about “grading all these essays. I already know what I'll be doing this week- end,” and we all nodded sympathetically. En glish teachers grade a lot of papers. Brown Date ____________________________ Look at each word, and circle the one that is spelled correctly. Every student learns different and as a teacher this is something that has to be accepted. One other thing is to never compare students to each other. See the mistakes as learning opportunities and let the student know that it is okay they did not do well however, you are there to help them with this. Then speak on how they can do better on what was missed. The teacher can also find different motivational ways to encourage the student on parts of the assessment they may not have done so well on. Talk about the things that the student did right on the paper first. Next

Formative Assessment For Essay Writing It's What Students Want.

Formative assessment essayApr 12, 2017. In a 2013 survey from English Journal, participating students indicated that writing improvement suggestions on their work during the development stage of writing was more important than constructive feedback after the assignment had already been turned in. Eighty percent of students were most. An assessment essay is essentially an analysis essay. Unlike a simple analysis, this type of essay rates a specific subject or event in degrees of merit or demerit. For example, if you were to assess the meaningfulness of a novel, your conclusions would indicate if it is not meaningful, slightly meaningful, adequately meaningful, very meaningful or surpassingly meaningful. The values included in your scale have to be connected to criteria which are mentioned at the beginning of the essay. If the creating and understanding criteria is not an easy thing for you, take a look at masterfully done assessment essays for inspiration; like the assessment papers in the published archives of Prof Next

History, Government, and Social Studies

Formative assessment essayMission Statement The Kansas Standards for History, Government, and Social Studies prepare students to be informed, thoughtful, engaged citizens as they enrich their. Formative and summative assessments are among the most common types of educational evaluations, each with its own distinct purpose. The goal of a formative assessment is to monitor progress toward a goal or objective, providing information in an expedient manner which allows both teachers and students to respond to the academic needs of the students. Though the word "assessment" often conjures images of paper-and-pencil exams, our understanding of this topic has evolved greatly in recent years, along with our reasons for assessing and the types of assessments we give our students. While we usually think of tests and evaluations being scored with a letter or number, formative assessments provide students with feedback rather than a grade. Formative assessments provide both students and teachers with the information they need to improve the learning process while it's happening. We hear a lot about "high stakes" assessments, but formative assessments are quite the opposite. Unlike traditional tests, these aren't just pencil-and-paper products. Next

Pebblebrook High School Home Page

Formative assessment essayNational Assessment of Education Progress NAEP Monday March 7, 2018 a sample of our 12 th grade students will take the National Assessment of Education Progress. Ynergy Assessment enables educators to create formative, summative, and benchmark assessments with ease, aligned to standards and stored centrally for district-wide access. Students can take assessments within the Student VUE portal using a computer or mobile device, or using paper-and-pencil. The interactive Results screen, accessed through the Assessment Dashboard, updates in real time as each student completes an assessment, so teachers can immediately adapt instruction to eliminate learning gaps. Synergy Assessment fully supports all technology-enhanced items, so students can gain exposure to the same item types they will encounter on the latest computer-based state assessments, such as PARCC and Smarter Balanced. Technology-enhanced item types include constructed response, evidence-based selected-response (EBSR), graphic gap match, hot spot, hot text, inline choice, matching, multi-part, multiple choice, multiple select, number line, select point and text entry. Next

Using a Pre-assessment as Formative

Formative assessment essayUsually students take a pre-assessment and the teacher is the only one to see the results. If we look at a pre-assessment as a formative assessment, then. The outcome can be measured in a number of ways – criterion, ipsative, norm-referenced for example (i.e. Summative assessment is also known as Use the outcomes of summative assessments ‘formatively’ as an evaluation of your teaching, learning and assessment process and therefore inform the next cycle of teaching, learning and assessment (planning, design and delivery). Formative assessment describes all those processes by which teachers and learners use information about student’s achievement to improve their achievements. So it’s about using information to adapt your teaching, to adapt the work of your students to put the learning back on track … to make sure the learning is proceeding in the right direction and to support that learning. So it’s what happens when you don’t just lecture students and rattle through the material and then ask them if they understood OK. This pamphlet was a summary of the key findings from a major research review (Black and Wiliam in 1998b). Since that time there has been further research into what works in the classroom (Black et al. “Assessment for learning or formative assessment is one of four assessment purposes commonly identified in the literature. The other three are for summative, evaluative and accountability purposes. All four purposes are important but the drive to raise standards over the last twenty years has emphasised the summative (end of key stage, examination results) and accountability (school performance) purposes. Next

Formative Assessment Strategies Definitions Examples

Formative assessment essayFORMATIVE ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES, DEFINITIONS, EXAMPLES. 1 Minute Essay. Give students an open-ended question and one to three minutes to write their answers. Good questions What is the most important thing we discussed today? Or What was the most confusing idea presented today? Collect the papers. There are many ways in which teachers can test their students to see where they are at and what still needs to worked on. These can be broken down into two distinct categories. Summative assessments are formal tests that are constructed by professionals to compare students with other students. Summative tests are used to measure outcomes of learning over time and can be criterion or norm referenced. Informal assessments also known as formative are generally constructed by the student's teacher. Formative assessments are a great resource to see where a student is at and measure what needs to be learned and help prepare a student for the summative assessment. There are many ways in which teachers can test their students to see where they are at and what still needs to worked on. Next

Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment -

Formative assessment essayThis paper provides findings on assessment for learning, drawn from recent analyses undertaken by CERI. It begins with analysis of the formative approach in exemplary practice carried out in secondary schools in eight education systems. The second half of the paper comprises key analyses on formative assessment in. Assessment for learning focuses on ascertaining information of where students current understandings lie and also assisting them to new knowledge and understandings. Formative assessments is defined by (Cowie and Bell, 1991) as a course of action used by teachers and students to recognise and respond to students learning to improve that learning during learning. During the 1980’sand 1990’s emphasis on assessing learners was primary placed in their teacher’s control. Solitary dominance within assessment for learning created passive learners who were inactive within the process, it also fashioned who relied heavily on the decisions and judgments of teachers. (Harlen, 1998) highlights the positive alternative saying the more input students have the greater their learning is, pupils who play a part in deciding their next steps rather than being passive recipients actions this process. Next

The use of technology in formative assessment to raise achievement

Formative assessment essayFaSMEd Position Paper. The use of technology in formative assessment to raise achievement. Annalisa Cusi, Francesca Morselli, Cristina Sabena, University of Torino. 1. Introduction. After a brief introduction on the main features of formative assessment and the role played by a good feedback practice, we focus on the. Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Assessment refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers, and by the students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. Next

Formative vs Summative Assessment - Eberly Center - Carnegie.

Formative assessment essayFormative vs Summative Assessment. The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More specifically, formative. a midterm exam; a final project; a paper; a senior recital. In this course, you will learn how to design assessments around the needs of your ELL students and their language level. You will learn how to incorporate language and content requirements for both formative and summative assessment types. You will learn to assess your ELL students through the use of project and task-based assignments. You will learn to use and modify rubrics to align to and measure student achievement of your language and content learning objectives. The course will also briefly cover strategies for supporting ELL students during standardized testing. Upon completing this course, you will be able to: * Conceptualize theories of authentic assessment as they apply to second language learners * Design formative assessment types incorporating language and content objectives * Design summative assessment types incorporating language and content objectives * Incorporate project and task-based assignments as assessment tools for ELLs * Design rubrics that align to language and content objectives for your ELL(s) * Apply the use of rubrics, both language and content, to the work of your ELL(s). * Support your ELL(s) as they participate in standardized testing Welcome to week 2 of the course! The lessons this week focus a bit more specifically on the different types of assessment and how they uniquely impact our ELLs. Next

Formative Assessment Why, What, and Whether - ASCD

Formative assessment essayThere is no single officially sanctified and universally accepted definition of formative assessment. Educators have drawn our use of the term formative from Michael Scriven's 1967 groundbreaking essay about educational evaluation, in which he contrasts summative evaluation with formative evaluation. According to. This paper provides findings on assessment for learning, It begins with analysis of the formative approach in exemplary practice carried out in secondary schools in eight education systems. The second half of the paper comprises key analyses on formative assessment in adult language, literacy, and numeracy provision, and a framework for strengthening policy and practice across the sector as well as for building the evidence base. In schools, the most visible assessments are summative. Summative assessments are used to measure what students have learnt at the end of a unit, to promote students, to ensure they have met required standards on the way to earning certification for school completion or to enter certain occupations, or as a method for selecting students for entry into further education. Ministries or departments of education may use summative assessments and evaluations as a way to hold publicly funded schools accountable for providing quality education. Increasingly, international summative assessments – such as OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) – have been important for comparing national education systems to developments in other countries. Next

Formative vs. Summative Assessment What's the Difference?

Formative assessment essayJun 3, 2015. Formative and summative assessments are among the most common types of educational evaluations, each with its own distinct purpose. Though the word "assessment" often conjures images of paper-and-pencil exams, our understanding of this topic has evolved greatly in recent years, along with our. If formative assessment is the planned classroom practice of eliciting evidence of student learning minute-to-minute, day-by-day then how does homework fit into that definition? Homework is not something that, by its own definition, is even done in the classroom, yet it can help teachers elicit evidence of student learning. If homework is about practicing (or integrating) new learning, much like scrimmages in basketball or football, then it seems reasonable that teachers would provide students with feedback on their homework, and time to use the feedback to get better at what they are doing (and learning). By spending a little bit of time thinking about formative assessment practices while designing/constructing homework assignments/questions, a teacher can get a good understanding of where that student is in their learning, so wouldn’t that make it formative? I suppose the answer to this question would vary depending on how the teacher is using the homework, what homework is being assigned, and whether that homework is graded. According to Carr and Farr In short, no matter the pure definition, I don’t think it is accurate to say that formative assessments can’t ever be graded. What matters – what makes a formative assessment formative – is whether I have a chance to get and use feedback in a later version of the ‘same’ performance. It’s only formative if it is ongoing; it’s only summative if it is the final chance, the ‘summing up’ of student performance. Next