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Ind and Dep variables plus hypothesis - SlideShare

Variables and hypothesisNov 4, 2010. Before we can perform an experiment designed to answer this question, we must determine the independent and dependent variable. For an experiment to have valid The research hypothesis is central to all research endeavors, whether qualitative or quantitative, exploratory or explanatory. At its most basic, the research hypothesis states what the researcher expects to find – it is the tentative answer to the research question that guides the entire study. Developing testable research hypotheses takes skill, however, along with careful attention to how the proposed research method treats the development and testing of hypotheses. Before jumping into writing research hypotheses it is crucial to first consider the general research question posed in a study. This seemingly obvious aspect of research can be deceptively difficult to pin down, as researchers often have an unstated sense of what they want to achieve in a study (and excitement about doing so) that makes it challenging to clearly state a research question. Glenn Firebaugh (2008) identified two key criteria for research questions: questions must be researchable and they must be interesting. Researchable implies that a question can be answered through empirical research (that is, something that science can address) and also limited enough that a study could actually hope to answer the question in a reasonable period of time. The requirement that the research question be interesting implies primarily that the question be important in the context of the ongoing scientific discussion of the topic (that is, interesting to other researchers). Next


What test should I use for hypothesis with many variables? - Cross.

Variables and hypothesisThere are many ways to approach this problem. One simple and flexible approach is as follows 1 Come up with a way of computing a coefficient c for each user, such that this coefficient should usually be bigger if your hypothesis is true than if not. For example, you could use. c = sum_{feature in {Extrov, Dep, Res}} how. In this note, we examine the effects of the use of a proxy variable on the test for an other observable variable. It is shown that using a proxy variable is better than omitting an unobservable variable in terms of the effects on the size of the test for the ohter observable variable. Next


Formatting a testable hypothesis

Variables and hypothesisThat is, you will perform a test of how two variables might be related. This is when you are doing a real experiment. You are testing variables. Usually, a hypothesis is based on some previous observation such as noticing that in November many trees undergo color changes in their leaves and the average daily temperatures. I have a survey with a list of questions in which respondents can pick their perceived personality traits. Then I have a question that asks respondents about their favorite in-game character's perceived personality and a question that asks respondents about their least favorite in-game character's perceived personality trait. My hypothesis is: People will prefer characters that they perceive to be similar to themselves, and dislike ones that they perceive to be different. What is the best way that I can conduct this statistic test? Example: One respondent may answer like this: There are many ways to approach this problem. Next


Science Buddies Variables & Hypothesis - UF/IFAS Blogs

Variables and hypothesisVariables and Hypothesis. Variables. Scientists use an experiment to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way. These changing quantities are called variables, and an experiment usually has. An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory (see inductive research). Let's say that you predict that there will be a relationship between two variables in your study. There is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research. The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship. Your prediction is that variable A and variable B will be related (you don't care whether it's a positive or negative relationship). Then the only other possible outcome would be that variable A and variable B are to represent the null case. In some studies, your prediction might very well be that there will be no difference or change. In this case, you are essentially trying to find support for the null hypothesis and you are opposed to the alternative. In the figure on the left, we see this situation illustrated graphically. The alternative hypothesis -- your prediction that the program will decrease absenteeism -- is shown there. Next


Variables and Hypotheses

Variables and hypothesisRESEARCH METHODS. VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESES. Begin with stating the research question, the purpose of the research, the resources needed, and a plan for the research, including a model of the phenomenon under study. Where do research ideas come from? Curiosity; experience; need for deciding or. In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables. The dependent variables represent the output or outcome whose variation is being studied. The independent variables represent inputs or causes, i.e., potential reasons for variation or, in the experimental setting, the variable controlled by the experimenter. Models and experiments test or determine the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables. Sometimes, independent variables may be included for other reasons, such as for their potential confounding effect, without a wish to test their effect directly. such that every element of X appears in an ordered pair with exactly one element of Y. In this situation, a symbol representing an element of X may be called an independent variable and a symbol representing an element of Y may be called a dependent variable, such as when X is a manifold and the symbol x represents an arbitrary point in the manifold. In data mining tools (for multivariate statistics and machine learning), the depending variable is assigned a role as target variable (or in some tools as label attribute), while an independent variable may be assigned a role as regular variable. Next


Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Variables

Variables and hypothesisYou won't be able to do very much in research unless you know how to talk about variables. A variable is any entity that can take on different values. OK, so what does that mean? Anything that can vary can be considered a variable. For instance, age can be considered a variable because age can take different values for. As students enter I have a "Do Now" (page 1 of Power Point) displayed on the board. I often use "Do Now"s when I am presenting a slide show, as it gives students something immediate to do and sets the stage for what is to come. Today's Do Now is a probe designed to elicit a conversation about testable questions. I review them to understand the ideas the students came in with. They are not graded for correctness, only as participation (did they do it or not). Once the Do Now is turned in, I pass out the hypothesis, variables and controls worksheet and present the Hypothesis and Variables slideshow. The slideshow presents the concepts of testable questions, hypotheses, variables and controls, which are the basis of students being able to plan and carry out investigations (NGSS Practice 3). At this point, it is important for all of us to have a common language while referring to these terms so that is why I present formal definitions to the students. Next


Research methods variables & hypothesis - SlideShare

Variables and hypothesisJan 27, 2012. Experimental Research Where cause meets effect Lesson 12 Research Methods Variables and HypothesisingSatu (will be worked on in class prior to due date) Your hypothesis statement will be turned in during science class, reviewed by the teacher and returned. Below is a short explanation of a hypothesis statement and some examples of hypothesis statements. Hypothesis statement--a prediction that can be tested or an educated guess. In a hypothesis statement, students make a prediction about what they think will happen or is happening in their experiment. EXAMPLES: Question: Why do leaves change colors in the fall? Hypothesis: I think that leaves change colors in the fall because they are not being exposed to as much sunlight. Hypothesis: Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. Hypothesis: Chocolate may cause pimples All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may." However, their form in not particularly useful. Using the word does not suggest how you would go about proving it. Next


Hypothesis Testing - Operationally defining the study and making.

Variables and hypothesisHow to define your variables and study and then to follow this up with making one and two-tailed predicitons. The Scientific Method is a process used to design and perform experiments. It helps to minimize experimental errors and bias, and increase confidence in the accuracy of your results. In the previous sections, we talked about how to pick a good topic and specific question to investigate. Once you've narrowed down the question, it's time to use the Scientific Method to design an experiment to answer that question. If your experiment isn't designed well, you may not get the correct answer. The Scientific Method is a logical and rational order of steps by which scientists come to conclusions about the world around them. Let's take a closer look at each one of these steps. The Scientific Method helps to organize thoughts and procedures so that scientists can be confident in the answers they find. Then you can understand the tools scientists use for their science experiments, and use them for your own. This step could also be called "research." It is the first stage in understanding the problem. After you decide on topic, and narrow it down to a specific question, you will need to research everything that you can find about it. Next


Statistics Null hypothesis - UC Davis, Psychology

Variables and hypothesisThe statistical procedure for testing a hypothesis requires some understanding of the null hypothesis. Think of the outcome dependent variable. From a statistical and sampling perspective, the null hypothesis asserts that the samples being compared or contrasted are drawn from the same population with regard to the. Historically, in physics, hidden variable theories were espoused by some physicists who argued that the state of a physical system, as formulated by quantum mechanics, does not give a complete description for the system; i.e., that quantum mechanics is ultimately incomplete, and that a complete theory would provide descriptive categories to account for all observable behavior and thus avoid any indeterminism. The existence of indeterminacy for some measurements is a characteristic of prevalent interpretations of quantum mechanics; moreover, bounds for indeterminacy can be expressed in a quantitative form by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Albert Einstein, the most famous proponent of hidden variables, objected to the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, Under the Copenhagen interpretation, quantum mechanics is non-deterministic, meaning that it generally does not predict the outcome of any measurement with certainty. Instead, it indicates what the probabilities of the outcomes are, with the indeterminism of observable quantities constrained by the uncertainty principle. The question arises whether there might be some deeper reality hidden beneath quantum mechanics, to be described by a more fundamental theory that can always predict the outcome of each measurement with certainty: if the exact properties of every subatomic particle were known the entire system could be modeled exactly using deterministic physics similar to classical physics. In other words, it is conceivable that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics is an incomplete description of nature. The designation of variables as underlying "hidden" variables depends on the level of physical description (so, for example, "if a gas is described in terms of temperature, pressure, and volume, then the velocities of the individual atoms in the gas would be hidden variables"). Physicists supporting De Broglie–Bohm theory maintain that underlying the observed probabilistic nature of the universe is a deterministic objective foundation/property—the hidden variable. Next


Variables & Hypothesis Grading Rubric

Variables and hypothesisGrading Rubric Variables &. Hypothesis. Name Date 0 = No Evidence 1 = Some Evidence 2 = Clearly Evident. Are the independent variable and dependent variables measurable? 0 1 2. Can the student change the independent variable during the experiment? 0 1 2. Has the student identified all relevant dependent. A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends upon independent variable s. The dependent variable is what is being measured in an experiment or evaluated in a mathematical equation. The dependent variable is sometimes called "the outcome variable." In a simple mathematical equation, for example: a = b/c the dependent variable, a , is determined by the values of b and c . Here's a simple example: A city planner needs to compare the number of drivers who go through red lights between 8 a.m. with the number of drivers who do so between 9 a.m. In this scenario, the time span is the independent variable and the difference in the number of drivers going through red lights during those time spans is the dependent variable. Next


Define the terms “Hypothesis,” “Independent Variable,” and.

Variables and hypothesisA hypothesis is a statement that contains an explanation to a phenomena. Hypothesis can be either proven or disproven. In most cases the hypothesis is something that can be tested in some way, usually quantitative. The purpose of the variables is to see how they are related and to allow you to have control over the. Well, anyone who has had the easy to make snack has also had a hard time with those blasted un-popped kernels. Well, this experiment is going to answer that age-old question. Which brand off popcorn yields the least amount of un-popped kernels? A lot of people have differing opinions on which popcorn has the least amount of un-popped kernels. Some think Orville Redenbacher, the expensive, gourmet popcorn to be the best popped kernel producer. Others may say the under-dog, the low priced, no-name brand (like Aldi Food Companys Corntown brand) is the best. Popcorn is a type of maize which, unlike other types of corn, pops when heated in oil or dry. It was first found and used to pop by Native Americans thousands of years ago. Next


Multiple hypothesis testing adjusted for latent variables, with an.

Variables and hypothesisJan 11, 2013. Abstract In high throughput settings we inspect a great many candidate variables e.g. genes searching for associations with a primary variable e.g. a phenotype. High throughput hypothesis testing can be made difficult by the presence of systemic effects and other latent variables. It is well known that. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 70,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Free 5-day trial A hypothesis is an educated prediction that can be tested. You will discover the purpose of a hypothesis then learn how one is developed and written. You know that when you study the night before, you get good grades. When you answered this question, you formed a hypothesis. It describes in concrete terms what you expect will happen in a certain circumstance. Examples are provided to aid your understanding, and there is a quiz to test your knowledge. Your hypothesis may have been, 'If not studying lowers test performance and I do not study, then I will get a low grade on the test.' A hypothesis is used in an experiment to define the relationship between two variables. Next


Sample Variables & Hypothesis - Science Buddies

Variables and hypothesisInformation to help you develop a good question for your science fair project. Includes a list of questions to avoid and a self evaluation to help you determine if your question will make a good science fair project. The Wald test is a parametric statistical test named after the statistician Abraham Wald. Whenever a relationship within or between data items can be expressed as a statistical model with parameters to be estimated from a sample, the Wald test can be used to test the true value of the parameter based on the sample estimate. Suppose a social scientist, who has data on social class and shoe size, wonders whether social class is associated with shoe size. Say might be the difference in shoe size between upper and middle-class people in the sample. In the Wald test, the social scientist uses the estimate and an estimate of variability (see below) to draw conclusions about the unobserved true . Or, for a medical example, suppose smoking multiplies the risk of lung cancer by some number R: then the Wald test can be used to test whether R = 1 (i.e. there is no effect of smoking) or is greater (or less) than 1 (i.e. A Wald test can be used in a great variety of different models including models for dichotomous variables and models for continuous variables., with the assumption that the difference between the two will be approximately normally distributed. Typically the square of the difference is compared to a chi-squared distribution. Next


A Strong Hypothesis

Variables and hypothesisThe hypothesis must be worded so that it can be tested in your experiment. Do this by expressing the hypothesis using your independent variable the variable you change during your experiment and your dependent variable the variable you observe-changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the. Monte Carlo simulations in Excel Quantum XL includes high speed modeling and Monte Carlo simulations, optimization, multiple continuous and discrete distributions, custom distributions, percent contribution analysis and much more. Next


How do you write null and alternative hypothesis for. - ResearchGate

Variables and hypothesisSpecifically, in this case the proposition is that one variable e.g. "regional conditions" has an effect on e.g. "moderates" the relationships among another set of variables e.g. "the impact of attitude etc. on entrepreneurial intentions". In contrast, a null hypothesis asserts that there is no relationship between variables. For our problem, we need to create a test that will determine whether or not Brand A paper towel will absorb more water than Brand B paper towel. Our experiment consisted of measuring water, folding a paper towel, dipping it into water, noting how much water it had absorbed and then repeating the process with the other brand of paper towel. Brand A Demonstration (5.57MB) Brand B Demonstration (6.07MB) When the experiment was over, we examine the results of the experiment and Draw a Conclusion. Next


Aims and Hypotheses Simply Psychology

Variables and hypothesisTypes of Hypotheses. A hypothesis plural hypotheses is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be the outcome of the study. This usually involves proposing a possible relationship between two variables the independent variable what the researcher changes and the dependant variable what. Look carefully at the hypothesis and variables manipulated columns. Notice that in descriptive investigations there is no hypothesis and no variables manipulated but in comparative and experimental investigations there is both a hypothesis and variables that are manipulated. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be used in science, one must be able to test it in the form of an experiment. The hypothesis is not just an “educated guess.” Hypotheses should be based on previous observations that cannot be explained with available information. Next


Hypothesis Development, Variable Development and Types of.

Variables and hypothesisTheoretical framework help identify the factors that are important to the study and aik in development of the hypothesis. A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured Formation/Expression of Opinion between two or more variables exposed in the form of a testable statement. The Statement is a proposition and. You may be able to use this automatic hypothesis generator to write your hypothesis for you. The sentance below supplies a scaffold for writing a hypothesis. If the independent variable is (increased, decreased, changed), then the dependent variable will (increase, decrease, change.) Example Hypothesis: If the amount of heat is decreased then germination will decrease. In the example the independent variable is amount of heat, it will be decreased, then the dependent variable which is germination will decease. Place the bolded terms into the hypothesis generator (or Hypothenator) and see if it comes up with a useful hypothesis. Next


PROC TRANSREG Hypothesis Tests with Dependent Variable.

Variables and hypothesisPROC TRANSREG can also provide approximate tests of hypotheses when the dependent variable is transformed, but the output is more complicated. When a dependent variable has more than one degree of freedom, the problem becomes multivariate. Hypothesis tests are performed in the context of a multivariate linear. An operational hypothesis in a research experiment clearly defines what the variables of interest are and how the different variables are related to each other. The operational hypothesis should also define the relationship that is being measured and state how the measurement is occurring. It attempts to take an abstract idea and make it into a concrete, clearly defined method. It is used to inform readers how the experiment is going to measure the variables in a specific manner. An operational hypothesis is more detailed than a general hypothesis. A general hypothesis for an example experiment would be that students who slept an hour extra the night before a test would perform better than those who slept the normal amount. An operational hypothesis would state that two groups of fifty high school students took an exam with one group having slept eight hours with the other group sleeping nine hours the night before in order to see if extra sleep improved test scores. Next


Hypothesis and Variables - OER in Education

Variables and hypothesisFeb 2, 2015. Lesson idea. This is one of two lessons preparing students for their ISA exams but can be used more generally to help students with various aspects of a scientific investigation. This resource focuses on forming hypotheses and graph drawing, taking in to account the nature of variables. Teaching approach. Your science project hypothesis is your scientific guess about what you think the results of an experiment will be when you put the question you picked to the test. Now that you have a question about an interesting topic which you’ have researched, you can probably make a pretty good predication of what will happen in your experiment. This prediction is your science project hypothesis. When creating your hypothesis keep in mind that it should incorporate the Independent Variable, and all of your Dependent Variables that you found. For example: “Our hypothesis is that a ” The “nutrient solution will outperform typical potting soil” part is the Independent Variable and the “30% increase in growth speed” part is the Dependent Variable. When you think you have your perfect hypothesis, make sure that your independent and dependent variables are measurable. If you were careful to pick a good question and avoid some of the pitfalls we mentioned then this should not be a problem. If you have to adjust your independent variable during your science fair experiment then make sure you will be able to do that. Next


Variables and hypothesisScience Project Hypothesis - Full details on how to forumulate a great hypothesis for a science fair project fast. Generally to understand some characteristic of the general population we take a random sample and study the corresponding property of the sample. We then determine whether any conclusions we reach about the sample are representative of the population. This is done by choosing an estimator function for the characteristic (of the population) we want to study and then applying this function to the sample to obtain an estimate. By using the appropriate statistical test we then determine whether this estimate is based solely on chance. The hypothesis that the estimate is based solely on chance is called the null hypothesis. Thus, the null hypothesis is true if the observed data (in the sample) do not differ from what would be expected on the basis of chance alone. The complement of the null hypothesis is called the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is typically abbreviated as H is false), it is sufficient to define the null hypothesis. Next


Variables and Hypotheses - Smith Creek Studios

Variables and hypothesisDefining Variables and Formulating Hypotheses. Defining Variables. The purpose of a research study is to discover unknown qualities of persons or things. To measure these qualities we define variables. In a study there are several classes of variables. 1. Independent or experimental variable There are two types of. In high throughput settings we inspect a great many candidate variables (e.g., genes) searching for associations with a primary variable (e.g., a phenotype). High throughput hypothesis testing can be made difficult by the presence of systemic effects and other latent variables. It is well known that those variables alter the level of tests and induce correlations between tests. They also change the relative ordering of significance levels among hypotheses. Poor rankings lead to wasteful and ineffective follow-up studies. The problem becomes acute for latent variables that are correlated with the primary variable. We propose a two-stage analysis to counter the effects of latent variables on the ranking of hypotheses. Our method, called LEAPP, statistically isolates the latent variables from the primary one. Dates First available in Project Euclid: 27 December 2012Permanent link to this documenthttps://projecteuclid.org/euclid.aoas/1356629055Digital Object Identifierdoi:10.1214/12-AOAS561Mathematical Reviews number (Math Sci Net) MR3058679Zentralblatt MATH identifier1257.62115Keywords EIGENSTRAT empirical null surrogate variable analysis Sun, Yunting; Zhang, Nancy R.; Owen, Art B. Next


Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Hypotheses

Variables and hypothesisActually, whenever I talk about an hypothesis, I am really thinking simultaneously about two hypotheses. Let's say that you predict that there will be a relationship between two variables in your study. The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your. How does the voltage of an AA battery change over time when used in low, medium, and high current drain devices? If I use a AA battery in any current-draining device, then the voltage of the battery will drop over time. If I perform this test in low, medium, and high current drain devices, then the rate of voltage drop will be slowest in the low current drain device and fastest in the high current drain device. Next


WRITING YOUR HYPOTHESIS AND IDENTIFYING VARIABLES

Variables and hypothesisTHE HYPOTHESIS. • Hypothesis an educated guess or prediction that can be tested; an “if, then” statement. • If I do this, then this will happen. • If __Independent Variable___ then. ____Dependent Variable____. A set of presuppositions on which scientific activity is built; the body of theories, ideas, models, test cases, and values shared by a scientific community; and the specific scientific accomplishments that influence future scientific activity. a change in one variable is associated with a change in another, either as a reasonable account of the intervening mechanisms or (in qualitative research) as a lived and meaningful experience for individuals and groups. A relationship between variables in which change in one variable brings about the same kind of change (i.e., "in the same direction") for another variable. When variables are positively related, an increase in one brings about an increase in the other, and a decrease in one brings about a decrease in the other. A relationship between variables in which change in one variable brings about an inverse change (i.e., "in the opposite direction") for another variable. When variables are negatively related, an increase in one brings about a decrease in the other, and a decrease in one brings about an increase in the other. A measurement principle in which the variables you observe actually demonstrate the concepts you seek to study. If your measurements are valid, then you really are measuring what you think you are measuring. Next


Hypothesis and Variables - YouTube

Variables and hypothesisJan 5, 2017. How to Identify Independent & Dependent Variable - Duration. Mr. Thiele's Science Channel 211,907 views · · Intro to Hypothesis Testing in Statistics - Hypothesis Testing Statistics Problems & Examples - Duration. mathtutordvd 760,090 views ·. Independent Variable, Dependent. A hypothesis is a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. It is usually based on both theoretical expectations about how things work, and already existing scientific evidence. Within social science, a hypothesis can take two forms. It can predict that there is no relationship between two variables, in which case it is a null hypothesis. Or, it can predict the existence of a relationship between variables, which is known as an alternative hypothesis. In either case, the variable that is thought to either affect or not affect the outcome is known as the independent variable, and the variable that is thought to either be affected or not is the dependent variable. Researchers seek to determine whether or not their hypothesis, or hypotheses if they have more than one, will prove true. Either way, the research is considered successful if one can conclude whether or not a hypothesis is true. A researcher has a null hypothesis when she or he believes, based on theory and existing scientific evidence, that there will not be a relationship between two variables. Next


What is a Hypothesis? - Definition & Explanation - Video & Lesson.

Variables and hypothesisA hypothesis is used in an experiment to define the relationship between two variables. The purpose of a hypothesis is to find the answer to a question. A formalized hypothesis will force us to think about what results we should look for in an experiment. The first variable is called the independent variable. This is the part of. (will be worked on in class prior to due date) Your hypothesis statement will be turned in during science class, reviewed by the teacher and returned. Below is a short explanation of a hypothesis statement and some examples of hypothesis statements. Hypothesis statement--a prediction that can be tested or an educated guess. In a hypothesis statement, students make a prediction about what they think will happen or is happening in their experiment. EXAMPLES: Question: Why do leaves change colors in the fall? Hypothesis: I think that leaves change colors in the fall because they are not being exposed to as much sunlight. Next


Hypothesis Texas Gateway

Variables and hypothesisLook carefully at the hypothesis and variables manipulated columns. Notice that in descriptive investigations there is no hypothesis and no variables manipulated but in comparative and experimental investigations there is both a hypothesis and variables that are manipulated. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an. Download a flow chart and table to help choose the right analysis here and for a handout explaining the terminology click here. To answer this question, you need to know the parameter you are comparing e.g. mean and whether you need a parametric test or non-parametric test. Microbiologybytes This website has videos with explanations of each test and how to carry out the test in Excel and SPSS. Parametric tests are more powerful but can only be used for continuous variables that are normally distributed. The following table is a guide to help you decide on an appropriate test with links to websites containing further information on each topic. This website gives useful summaries of each non-parametric test. Unfortunately, both are out of date but can still be used by people with old versions of these programs. A brief description of the main sites used is given below the table to help you decide which is best for you. Quick description of main websites used: [1] and [SPSS]. Excel requires the Analysis Toolpak to be installed or activated through the Home  Excel options for the latest version of Excel. If there are numerous independent variables, use multivariate techniques. Laerd Statistics This site is very useful as there are fairly detailed but easy to read descriptions of each test and how to do it in SPSS, (version 18). Stattrek Clear summary including the maths behind the tests. The introduction to each test includes the conditions needed for the test. Unfortunately, there are some differences in the processes for non-parametric tests in SPSS 19 but the information is still useful when it comes to understanding the tests and interpreting the output. MLSC, Loughborough Uni Stats help Loughborough University stats support handouts containing calculations by hand with limited SPSS instructions and interpretation. Next


Writing the hypothesis - Writing the hypothesis

Variables and hypothesisAutomatic hypothesis generator. You may be able to use this automatic hypothesis generator to write your hypothesis for you. The sentance below supplies a scaffold for writing a hypothesis. If the independent variable is increased, decreased, changed, then the dependent variable will increase, decrease, change. Formulating hypotheses, which are defined as propositions set forth to explain a group of facts or phenomena, is a fundamental component to any research scholarship. Hypotheses lay out the central arguments that will be tested and either verified or rejected in the body of a paper. Papers may address multiple competing or supporting hypotheses in order to account for the full spectrum of explanations that could account for the phenomenon being studied. As such, hypotheses often include statements about a presumed impact of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Hypotheses should not emanate from preconceived perceptions about a given relationship between variables, but rather should come about as a product of research. Thus, hypotheses should be formed after developing an understanding of the relevant literature to a given topic rather than before conducting research. Beginning research with a specific argument in mind can lead to discounting other evidence that could either run counter to this preconceived argument or could point to other potential explanations. There are a number of different types of hypotheses utilized in political science research: A good hypothesis should be both correlative and directional and most hypotheses in political science research will also be causal, asserting the impact of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Next